Lithium-Ion Batteries

Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have advanced considerably since their introduction in the early 1990s and are now an integral part of the portable electronics industry. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are key components of a variety of electronic devices including mobile phones, laptop and tablet computers, and personal gaming and music devices. These batteries are particularly well-suited for mobile applications due to long lifetimes and high power densities (W/kg), which result in compact, light-weight batteries.

Basic principles and conventional materials

Li-ion batteries, like other batteries, are constructed from three primary materials: two electrodes (anode and cathode) and a conductive electrolyte. In the case of Li-ion batteries (Figure 1), monovalent lithium cations migrate to the negative electrode (anode) during charging cycles and to the positive electrode (cathode) during discharge cycles.1-2

Conventional cathode materials generally fall under two structure types. Materials like LiCoO2 (Aldrich Prod. No. 442704), adopt a layered, rhombohedral structure with two dimensional Li+ diffusion parallel to the planar sheets of metal cations. Other materials, such as LiMn2O4 (Aldrich Prod. Nos. 482277 and 725129), adopt the spinel structure and allow Li+ diffusion in three dimensions.3 LiCoO2 and mixed metal analogs (Ni- and Al-substitutions) are currently the most widely used cathode materials because of superior properties and well-studied behaviors. Mn-based spinels have slightly decreased performances relative to LiCoO2 but are less expensive to produce, finding applications in niche markets with large-scale battery use. LIB anodes are typically fabricated from carbonaceous materials. Common electrolyte materials include LiBF4 (Aldrich Prod. No. 451622) and LiPF6 (Aldrich Prod. No. 405227).4
Materials for Next Generation Li-ion Batteries
Judicious selection of cathode and anode materials allows for cell optimization, making the pursuit of new materials with superior properties a paramount issue for LIB research. Promising cathode materials include mixed metal oxides, such as LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Aldrich Prod. No. 725110 ), and metal phosphates, such as LiCoPO4 (Aldrich Prod. No. 725145 ).5 Oxides such as Li4Ti5O12 (Aldrich Prod. No.702277 ) and SnO2 (Aldrich Prod. No. 549657) are also of interest as alternative anode materials.

In conjunction with exploratory synthetic work identifying new LIB materials, much effort has been devoted toward developing new methods of device fabrication. One of the recent advances in Li-ion technology is the fabrication of battery components from nanoscale or sub-micron scale powders, such as LiMn2O4 and LiCoPO4. 6 Sub-micron LIB materials display several interesting properties owing to their high surface-to-volume ratios and large surface areas. Two distinct advantages are observed in this case: (1) higher areas of contact at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces and (2) decreased diffusion distances for Li+ migration from the center of the grain (particle) to the grain boundary. From a mechanical standpoint, fine-grain composites may also yield superior fatigue resistance, tolerating a higher amount of induced strain from volumetric changes during charge/discharge cycles.6
References

1. Manthiram, A. Materials Aspects: An Overview. In Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology; Nazri, G.-A. and Pistoia, G., Eds.; Springer: New York, 2003.
2. Yoshio, M. and Noguchi, H. A Review of Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. In Lithium-ion Batteries: Science and Technology; Yoshio, M; Brodd, R.J.; Kozawa, A., Eds.; Springer: New York, 2009.
3. Gao, Y. and Dahn, J.R. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1996, 143, 100-114.
4. Howell, D.; Duong, T.; Deppe, J.B.; Weinstock, I. Material Matters 2008, 3(4), 100-103.
5. Amine, K.; Yasuda, H.; Yamachi, M. Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 2000, 3, 178-179.
6. Venugopal, G.; Hunt, A.; Alamgir, F. Material Matters 2010, 5(2), 42-45.

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Figure 1. Schematic representation of a typical Li-ion battery.

Electrode Sheets

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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765198 Lithium manganese nickel oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li2Mn3NiO8
765201 Lithium manganese oxide spinel, electrode sheet, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiMn2O4
765171 Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2
765163 Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2
765155 Lithium titanate spinel, electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li4Ti5O12

Cathode Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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746320 Cobalt monoantimonide -80 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative CoSb
442704 Lithium cobalt(III) oxide 99.8% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiCoO2
725145 Lithium cobalt phosphate powder, ≥99% (trace metals analysis) Green Alternative LiCoPO4
777110 Lithium cobalt phosphate 99.9% trace metals basis, battery grade Green Alternative LiCoPO4
442712 Lithium iron(III) oxide 95% Green Alternative LiFeO2
759546 Lithium iron(II) phosphate powder, <5 μm particle size (BET), >97% (XRF) Green Alternative LiFePO4
790974 Lithium iron(II) silicate powder, <2 μm particle size, 99.7% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li2FeSiO4
725137 Lithium manganese dioxide powder, <1 μm particle size, >99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiMnO2
725110 Lithium manganese nickel oxide spinel, powder, <0.5 μm particle size (BET), >99% Green Alternative Li2Mn3NiO8
765198 Lithium manganese nickel oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li2Mn3NiO8
765201 Lithium manganese oxide spinel, electrode sheet, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiMn2O4
725129 Lithium manganese oxide spinel, powder, <0.5 μm particle size (BET), >99% Green Alternative LiMn2O4
482277 Lithium manganese(III,IV) oxide electrochemical grade Green Alternative LiMn2O4
400904 Lithium molybdate 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li2MoO4
760994 Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide powder, <0.5 μm particle size, >98% Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2
765171 Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2
760986 Lithium nickel cobalt oxide powder, <0.5 μm particle size, >98% Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.2O2
757365 Lithium nickel dioxide powder, <3 μm particle size (BET), ≥98% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiNiO2
761001 Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide powder, <0.5 μm particle size, >98% Green Alternative LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2
765163 Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2
763608 Manganese nickel carbonate Ni0.25Mn0.75CO3, 99.99% trace metals basis (excluding Mg) Green Alternative Mn0.75Ni0.25CO3

Anode Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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444456 Lithium granular, 4-10 mesh particle size, high sodium, 99% (metals basis) Green Alternative Li
266000 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 1.5 mm × 100 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
265993 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 0.75 mm × 45 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
320080 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 0.75 mm × 19 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
265985 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 0.38 mm × 23 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
278327 Lithium wire, diam. 3.2 mm, in mineral oil, ≥98% Green Alternative Li
426490 Lithium-aluminum alloy Green Alternative Al-Li
400939 Lithium titanate −80 mesh Green Alternative Li2TiO3
765155 Lithium titanate spinel, electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li4Ti5O12
702277 Lithium titanate, spinel nanopowder, <200 nm particle size (BET), >99% Green Alternative Li4Ti5O12
549657 Tin(IV) oxide nanopowder, ≤100 nm avg. part. size Green Alternative SnO2

Electrolyte Solutions

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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746711 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC=50/50 (v/v), battery grade Green Alternative  
746738 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and ethyl methyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/EMC=50/50 (v/v), battery grade Green Alternative  
746746 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC=50/50 (v/v), battery grade Green Alternative  
746754 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in dimethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in DMC, battery grade Green Alternative  
746762 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethyl methyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EMC, battery grade Green Alternative  
746770 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in diethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in DEC, battery grade Green Alternative  
746789 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in propylene carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in PC, battery grade Green Alternative  
809349 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 EC/DEC=50/50(v/v), battery grade  
809357 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC=50/50(v/v), battery grade  
809365 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and ethylmethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 EC/EMC=50/50(v/v), battery grade  
809543 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in diethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 DEC, battery grade  

Electrolyte Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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790516 Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate ≥99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3
757136 Lithium bis(oxalato)borate Green Alternative LiB(C2O4)2
774138 Lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate Green Alternative LiBF2(C2O4)
308315 Lithium hexafluoroarsenate(V) 98% Green Alternative LiAsF6
450227 Lithium hexafluorophosphate battery grade, ≥99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiPF6
809403 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylmethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 EMC, battery grade  
809411 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in dimethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 DMC, battery grade  
809470 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in propylene carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 PC, battery grade  
634565 Lithium perchlorate battery grade, dry, 99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiClO4
442682 Lithium phosphate monobasic 99% Green Alternative LiH2PO4
451142 Lithium tetrachloroaluminate anhydrous, beads, −10 mesh, 99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiAlCl4
736317 Lithium tetrachlorogallate anhydrous, beads, −10 mesh, 99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiGaCl4
451622 Lithium tetrafluoroborate ultra dry, powder, 99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiBF4
481548 Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate 99.995% trace metals basis Green Alternative CF3SO3Li

Solvents

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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900020 Adiponitrile >99%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm NC(CH2)4CN
718203 Allyl methyl sulfone 96% Green Alternative C4H8O2S
900001 tert-Amylbenzene ≥99%, H2O <100 ppm, acid <200 ppm C11H16
517135 Diethyl carbonate anhydrous, ≥99% (C2H5O)2CO
900018 Diethyl carbonate ≥99%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm (C2H5O)2CO
774278 Diethyl sulfite 98% Green Alternative (C2H5O)2SO
517127 Dimethyl carbonate anhydrous, ≥99% (CH3O)2CO
809942 Dimethyl carbonate ≥99.9%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm (CH3O)2CO
809950 Ethylene carbonate ≥99%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm C3H4O3
774251 Ethylene sulfite ≥99.0% Green Alternative C2H4O3S
754935 Ethyl methyl carbonate 99% Green Alternative C4H8O3
809934 Ethyl methyl carbonate 99.9%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10ppm C4H8O3
757349 Fluoroethylene carbonate 99% Green Alternative C3H3FO3
718319 3-(Methylsulfonyl)-1-propyne 95% Green Alternative C4H6O2S
810002 Phenylcyclohexane ≥99%, acid < 200 ppm, H2O < 100 ppm C6H5C6H11
809985 1,3-Propanesultone ≥99%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm C3H6O3S
310328 Propylene carbonate anhydrous, 99.7% C4H6O3
809969 Propylene carbonate ≥99%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm C4H6O3
774456 1,2-Propyleneglycol sulfite ≥98% Green Alternative C3H6O3S
774294 Propylene sulfate ≥99% Green Alternative C3H6O4S
774243 1,3-Propylene sulfite 99% Green Alternative C3H6O3S
809993 2-Propynyl methanesulfonate ≥99.5%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm C4H6O3S
401757 Tetrahydrofuran anhydrous, ≥99.9%, inhibitor-free C4H8O
186562 Tetrahydrofuran anhydrous, contains 250 ppm BHT as inhibitor, ≥99.9% C4H8O
757144 Vinylene carbonate contains 80 ppm BHT as stabilizer, 99% Green Alternative C3H2O3
809977 Vinylene carbonate 99.5%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm C3H2O3