Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is a collective set of processes used to deposit thin layers of material, typically in the range of few nanometers to several micrometers.1 PVD processes are environmentally friendly vacuum deposition techniques consisting of three fundamental steps (Figure 1):

  • Vaporization of the material from a solid source assisted by high temperature vacuum or gaseous plasma.
  • Transportation of the vapor in vacuum or partial vacuum to the substrate surface.
  • Condensation onto the substrate to generate thin films.

Different PVD technologies utilize the same three fundamental steps but differ in the methods used to generate and deposit material. The two most common PVD processes are thermal evaporation and sputtering. Thermal evaporation is a deposition technique that relies on vaporization of source material by heating the material using appropriate methods in vacuum. Sputtering is a plasma-assisted technique that creates a vapor from the source target through bombardment with accelerated gaseous ions (typically Argon). In both evaporation and sputtering, the resulting vapor phase is subsequently deposited onto the desired substrate through a condensation mechanism.2

Deposited films can span a range of chemical compositions based on the source material(s). Further compositions are accessible through reactive deposition processes. Relevant examples include co-deposition from multiple sources, reaction during the transportation stage by introducing a reactive gas (nitrogen, oxygen or simple hydrocarbon containing the desired reactant), and post-deposition modification through thermal or mechanical processing.3

PVD is used in a variety of applications, including fabrication of microelectronic devices, interconnects, battery and fuel cell electrodes, diffusion barriers, optical and conductive coatings, and surface modifications.4-6

Aldrich Materials Science offers a variety of PVD materials for a range of deposition processes. Examples include sputtering targets and pellets, evaporation slugs, and high-purity metal foils.

Custom designed materials, including metal filled crucibles for Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), are also available through our Hard Materials Center of Excellence. To inquire, please contact hardmaterials@sial.com.

Additional information about other vapor deposition techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be found in our CVD/ALD precursors spotlight.
References:

1. Powell, C. F.; Oxley, J. H. and Blocher Jr, J. M. Vapor Deposition; Wiley, New York, 1967.
2. Westwood, W. D. Sputter Deposition; AVS Education Committee book series, v. 2. New York: Education Committee, 2003.
3. Mattox, D. M. Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing: Film Formation, Adhesion, Surface Preparation and Contamination Control; Noyes Publications, New Jersey,1998.
4. Geng, H. Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2004.
5. Helmersson, U.; Lattemann, M.; Bohlmark, J.; Ehiasarian, A. P.; Gudmundsson, J. T. Thin Solid Films, 2006, 513, 1.
6. Uhlenbruck, S.; Nedelec, R.; Sebold, D.; Buchkremer, H. P.; Stoever, D. ECS Transactions, 2011, 35, 2275.

Sputtering Targets

Product #

Description

Formula

Diam. x Thickness

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749036 Aluminum sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.9995% trace metals basis Al 99.9995 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
752665 Aluminum zinc oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.99% trace metals basis Al2O3/ZnO 99.99 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
749052 Chromium sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.95% trace metals basis Cr 99.95 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
767476 Copper sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis Cu 99.95 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
752673 Gallium zinc oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.99% trace metals basis ZnO/Ga2O3 99.99 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
752649 Indium oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.99% trace metals basis In2O3 99.99 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
752657 Indium tin oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.99% trace metals basis   99.99 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
752703 Indium zinc oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.99% trace metals basis In2O3/ZnO 99.99 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
767484 Nickel sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis Ni 99.95 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
767492 Silicon sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.999% trace metals basis Si 99.999 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
767514 Tantalum sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis Ta 99.95 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
749044 Titanium sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.995% trace metals basis Ti 99.995 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
767506 Titanium sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.995% trace metals basis Ti 99.995 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
767522 Tungsten sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis W 99.95 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
774022 Yttrium(III) oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.99% trace metals basis Y2O3 99.99 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
773972 Yttrium sputtering target diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.9% trace metals basis Y 99.9 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
749060 Zinc sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.995% trace metals basis Zn 99.995 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
752681 Zinc oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.99% trace metals basis ZnO 99.99 3.00 in. × 0.125 in.
774030 Zirconium(IV) oxide sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis (excludes 2% HfO2) ZrO2 99.95 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
774049 Zirconium(IV) oxide-yttria stabilized sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.9% trace metals basis ZrO2 · Y2O3 99.9 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.
774057 Zirconium yttrium alloy sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.9% trace metals basis (excluding <=1% Hf) Zr.85Y.15 99.9 2.00 in. × 0.25 in.

High-Purity Metal Foils

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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266957 Aluminum foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis Al
266574 Aluminum foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis Al
326852 Aluminum foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis Al
733369 Aluminum foil, thickness 8 μm, 99% trace metals basis Al
265411 Cadmium foil, thickness 0.5 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis Cd
266671 Cobalt foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis Co
356867 Cobalt foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.95% trace metals basis Co
266744 Copper foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis Cu
349178 Copper foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Cu
349208 Copper foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Cu
349151 Copper foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Cu
265829 Gold foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
349240 Gold foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Au
265810 Gold foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
349275 Gold foil, thickness 0.05 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
268461 Gold foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
326631 Indium foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis In
357294 Indium foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis In
357308 Indium foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis In
357324 Iridium foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ir
338141 Iron foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis Fe
356808 Iron foil, thickness 0.1 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Fe
357200 Molybdenum foil, thickness 1.0 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Mo
266922 Molybdenum foil, thickness 0.1 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Mo
357227 Molybdenum foil, thickness 0.025 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Mo
357553 Nickel foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Ni
267007 Nickel foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis Ni
357588 Nickel foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Ni
262781 Niobium foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.8% trace metals basis Nb
348678 Palladium foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Pd
349372 Platinum foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
267260 Platinum foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
349321 Platinum foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
267252 Platinum foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
349356 Platinum foil, thickness 0.05 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
349364 Platinum foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
267317 Rhenium foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Re
357340 Rhodium foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Rh
326976 Silver foil, thickness 2.0 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ag
369438 Silver foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Ag
345075 Silver foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ag
326984 Silver foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ag
265527 Silver foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ag
265519 Silver foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ag
262897 Tantalum foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Ta
357243 Tantalum foil, thickness 0.05 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Ta
262919 Tantalum foil, thickness 0.025 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis Ta
265756 Tin foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.998% trace metals basis Sn
348805 Titanium foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Ti
267481 Titanium foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Ti
348813 Titanium foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Ti
348848 Titanium foil, thickness 0.025 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Ti
357189 Tungsten foil, thickness 0.5 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis W
267546 Tungsten foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis W
357197 Tungsten foil, thickness 0.127 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis W
267538 Tungsten foil, thickness 0.05 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis W
357162 Vanadium foil, thickness 0.127 mm, 99.7% trace metals basis V
357170 Vanadium foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.7% trace metals basis V
349410 Zinc foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis Zn
267619 Zinc foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis Zn
419141 Zirconium foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis Zr

Evaporation Slugs

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

433705 Aluminum evaporation slug, diam. × L 6.3 mm × 6.3 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis Al
373168 Gold evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 1.2 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
373176 Gold evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 0.6 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
373184 Gold evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.3 cm × 0.6 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis Au
449229 Iridium evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 1.2 cm, 99.9% trace metals basis Ir
373192 Palladium evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.9 cm × 1.2 cm, 99.95% trace metals basis Pd
373206 Palladium evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 0.6 cm, 99.95% trace metals basis Pd
373222 Platinum evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 0.6 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
373230 Platinum evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.3 cm × 0.6 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis Pt
373249 Silver evaporation slug, diam. × L 0.6 cm × 1.2 cm, 99.99% trace metals basis Ag
433667 Titanium evaporation slug, diam. × L 6.3 mm × 6.3 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis Ti