Phosphor Materials

Phosphors are materials that exhibit the phenomenon of luminescence, i.e. they emit light when exposed to radiation such as ultraviolet light or an electron beam. Phosphor materials also called luminescent materials are used in a variety of display applications, such as electroluminescent, photoluminescent, plasma and field emission displays, LCDs, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), X-ray detectors, LEDs and many more.1-2

Inorganic phosphors usually consist of a host material that could be an oxide, nitride, oxynitride, silicate, sulfide, selenide, halide or oxyhalide, doped with small amounts of activator ions like rare-earth and/or transition metal ions.3-5 The activator ions act as emission or luminescence centers and possess energy levels that can be populated by direct excitation or indirectly by energy transfer.

Activator ions can be broadly divided into two categories. In the first type the energy levels of the activator ions show only weak interactions with the host lattice. Typical examples include many of the lanthanide ions, wherein the emission relies on f to f transitions. The low lying f orbitals are well shielded from their coordination environment thus giving rise to characteristics line emission spectra from the sharp f-f transitions. The second type of activator ions interact strongly with the host lattice. Examples include Mn2+, Eu2+ and Ce3+ ions where d-electrons are involved. The d-orbitals have a pronounced interaction with the crystalline host lattice which lifts the degeneracy and leads to distinct energy states, giving rise to broad bands in the spectrum.

A good phosphor should absorb the excitation energy and emit light afterwards as fast and efficiently as possible. The elapsed time between excitation and emission should be short to avoid afterglow. Energy absorption can occur either at the activator ion or at a random place in the lattice, but eventually the energy should be transferred to the luminescent center for the emission to occur. The absorbed energy can also be lost through radiationless decay, thereby decreasing the quantum yield, QE.

Besides the quantum yield, the other important parameters for phosphor materials are its color point, the lumen equivalent, the emission spectrum and the emission lifetime. The color point is derived from the spectral energy distribution of the emission and is defined according to the convention of the Commission Internationale d′Eclairge (CIE) diagram.6-8 The CIE diagram is used to determine the color of the phosphor material or a mixture of phosphor materials along with the color saturation.

Aldrich Materials Science now offers high purity inorganic phosphor materials emitting different colors in the visible spectrum, along with dopant and host materials, as seen in the tables below.

For a complete list of nanopowders and nanoparticle dispersions for phosphor applications, click here.
For a complete list of quantum dots for optical and display applications, click here.
References

1. Birkel, A.; Denault, K. A.; George, N. C.; Seshadri. R. Material Matters, 2012, 7(2), 22.
2. Chen, L.; Lin, C-C.; Yeh, C-W.; Liu, R-S. Materials 2010, 3, 2172.
3. Yen, W. M.; Weber, M. J. Inorganic Phosphors: Compositions, Preparation and Optical Properties, The CRC Press, Laser and Optical Science and Technology Series, 2004.
4. Justel, T.; Nikol, H.; Ronda, C. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1998, 37, 3084.
5. Hoppe, H. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 3572.
6. CIE (1932) Commission internationale de l′Eclairage Proceedings, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1931.
7. Smith, T.; Guild, J. The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use, Transactions of the Optical Society 1931-1932, 33 (3), 73.
8. Butler, K. H. Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA, 1980.
Figure 1: Luminescence of blue (Eu2+), green (Tb3+) and red (Eu3+

Phosphors

Product #

Description

Color

Molecular Formula

Purity

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756512 Barium magnesium aluminate, europium doped Green Alternative Blue phosphor
Ba0.86Eu0.14MgAl10O17 99
756504 Cerium magnesium aluminate, terbium doped Green Alternative Color coordinate (x): 0.335 +/- 0.015

Color coordinate (y): 0.590 +/- 0.015
Green phosphor
Ce0.63Tb0.37MgAl11O19 99
900436 SGA 515 100 isiphor® New      
900427 SGA 521 100 isiphor® New      
900428 SGA 524 100 isiphor®      
900429 SGA 530 100 isiphor® New      
900431 SGA 545 100 isiphor®      
900430 SGA 550 100 isiphor®      
900437 SGA 555 100 isiphor®      
756555 Sodium yttrium fluoride, ytterbium and erbium doped Green Alternative Green up-conversion phosphor
NaY0.77Yb0.20Er0.03F4 99
756563 Sodium yttrium fluoride, ytterbium and thulium doped Green Alternative Green up-conversion phosphor
NaY0.77Yb0.20Tm0.03F4 99
756571 Sodium yttrium oxyfluoride, ytterbium and erbium doped Green Alternative Red up-conversion phosphor
Type BPP-1071
NaY1.54Yb0.40Er0.06F5O 99
756520 Strontium aluminate, europium and dysprosium doped Green Alternative Long persistent blue-green phosphor
Sr3.84Eu0.06Dy0.10Al14O25 99
756539 Strontium aluminate, europium and dysprosium doped Green Alternative Long persistent green phosphor
Sr0.95Eu0.02Dy0.03Al2O4 99
755966 Trichromatic phosphors, pre-mixed Green Alternative Color cordinate, x: 0.310 ± 0.010
Color cordinate, y: 0.350 ±0.010
Mixture of red, green and blue phospor
   
756490 Yttrium oxide, europium doped Green Alternative Color coordinate, x: 0.645 +/- 0.015
Color coordinate, y: 0.345 +/- 0.015
Red phosphor
Y1.92Eu0.08O3 99

Hosts

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Form

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756393 Aluminum nitride AlN 99.8 powder
756407 Barium nitride Ba3N2 99.7 powder
773956 Barium phosphate Ba3(PO4)2 99.9 powder
772658 Barium pyrophosphate Ba2P2O7 99.9 powder
202762 Barium sulfate BaSO4 99.998  
523437 Barium sulfide BaS 99.9  
217921 Cadmium sulfide CdS 99.995 powder
208183 Cadmium sulfide CdS   powder
756415 Calcium nitride Ca3N2 99 powder
229539 Calcium oxide CaO 99.995 powder and chunks
451711 Calcium oxide CaO 99.99 powder
208159 Calcium oxide CaO 99.9 powder
21218 Calcium phosphate Ca3O8P2 96  
401552 Calcium pyrophosphate Ca2P2O7 99.9 powder
255696 Calcium sulfate CaSO4 99.99 powder and chunks
409553 Calcium sulfide CaS 99.9 powder
633801 Calcium titanate CaTiO3 99 nanopowder
248665 Calcium tungstate CaWO4   powder
634735 Lanthanum aluminum oxide LaAlO3 99.99  
772887 Lanthanum borate LaBO3 99.9 powder
772666 Lanthanum calcium borate La2CaB10O19 99.9 powder
203556 Lanthanum(III) oxide La2O3 99.999 powder
199923 Lanthanum(III) oxide La2O3 99.99 powder
L4000 Lanthanum(III) oxide La2O3 99.9 powder
587176 Lanthanum(III) phosphate hydrate LaPO4 · xH2O 99.99 chunks
336637 Lithium aluminate LiAlO2   powder and chunks
677396 Magnesium aluminate, spinel MgO·Al2O3   nanopowder
434183 Magnesium sulfate monohydrate MgSO4 · H2O 97 powder
752614 Silicon aluminum oxynitride Al6N6O2Si 99.9  
755680 Strontium aluminate SrAl2O4 99.5 powder
756423 Strontium nitride Sr3N2 99.5 powder
773948 Strontium phosphate Sr3(PO4)2 99.9 powder
773921 Strontium pyrophosphate Sr2P2O7 99.9 powder
575712 Strontium sulfide SrS 99.9  
772879 Yttrium aluminum borate YAl3(BO3)4 99.9 powder
772852 Yttrium borate YBO3 99.9 powder
204927 Yttrium(III) oxide Y2O3 99.999 powder
205168 Yttrium(III) oxide Y2O3 99.99 powder
587567 Yttrium(III) phosphate YPO4 99.99 solid
204951 Zinc oxide ZnO 99.999 powder
255750 Zinc oxide ZnO 99.99 powder
587583 Zinc phosphate Zn3(PO4)2 99.998 powder and chunks
333271 Zinc sulfide ZnS 99.9 pieces
244627 Zinc sulfide ZnS 99.99 powder
254320 Zinc telluride ZnTe 99.99 powder

Dopants

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Form

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563919 Aluminum chloride AlCl3 99.999 powder
294713 Aluminum chloride AlCl3 99.99 powder
449598 Aluminum chloride AlCl3 99.99 powder
A1577 Aluminum hydroxide hydrate Al(OH)3 · xH2O   powder
202649 Antimony(III) oxide Sb2O3 99.999 powder
379255 Antimony(III) oxide Sb2O3 99.99 powder
230898 Antimony(III) oxide Sb2O3 99 powder
255459 Arsenic(V) oxide hydrate As2O5 · xH2O 97 powder
335959 Bismuth(III) oxide Bi2O3 99.99  
202827 Bismuth(III) oxide Bi2O3 99.999 powder
223891 Bismuth(III) oxide Bi2O3 99.9 powder
202894 Cadmium oxide CdO 99.99 powder
244783 Cadmium oxide CdO 99.5 powder
256544 Cadmium telluride CdTe 99.99 powder
716669 Cadmium telluride CdTe 99.9999 crystals
429406 Cerium(III) chloride CeCl3 99.99 beads
298190 Cerium(III) chloride CeCl3 99.9 beads
228931 Cerium(III) chloride heptahydrate CeCl3 · 7H2O 99.9 crystals and lumps
229555 Cerium(III) fluoride CeF3 99.99 powder
342955 Cerium(IV) oxide CeO2 99.9 fused
pieces
202975 Cerium(IV) oxide CeO2 99.995 powder
211575 Cerium(IV) oxide CeO2 99.9 powder
348341 Cerium(IV) oxide CeO2 90 powder
289744 Cerium(IV) oxide, dispersion CeO2   dispersion
675644 Chromium(VI) oxide CrO3 99.99 powder or flakes
451657 Copper(II) sulfate CuSO4 99.99 powder
203165 Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4 · 5H2O 99.999 crystals and lumps
469130 Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4 · 5H2O 99.995 crystalline
432156 Erbium(III) fluoride ErF3 99.99 powder
203238 Erbium(III) oxide Er2O3 99.99 powder
289248 Erbium(III) oxide Er2O3 99.9 powder
431850 Europium(II) chloride EuCl2 99.99 powder and chunks
474770 Europium(II) iodide EuI2 99.9 powder
751499 Europium(II) iodide EuI2 99.999 beads
429732 Europium(III) chloride EuCl3 99.99 powder
238066 Europium(III) chloride EuCl3 99.9 powder
203254 Europium(III) chloride hexahydrate EuCl3 · 6H2O 99.99 crystals and lumps
212881 Europium(III) chloride hexahydrate EuCl3 · 6H2O 99.9 crystals and lumps
449806 Europium(III) fluoride EuF3 99.99 powder
254061 Europium(III) nitrate hydrate Eu(NO3)3 · xH2O 99.99 solid
207918 Europium(III) nitrate pentahydrate Eu(NO3)3 · 5H2O 99.9 crystals and lumps
323543 Europium(III) oxide Eu2O3 99.999 powder and chunks
203262 Europium(III) oxide Eu2O3 99.99 powder
289221 Europium(III) oxide Eu2O3 99.9 powder
H9750 Holmium(III) oxide Ho2O3 99.9 powder
229679 Holmium(III) oxide Ho2O3 99.999 powder
494682 Indium tin oxide   99.99 powder
203424 Indium(III) oxide In2O3 99.998 powder
289418 Indium(III) oxide In2O3 99.99 powder
529303 Iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate Fe(NO3)3 · 9H2O 99.999 solid
577847 Lead oxide Pb3O4 99.99 powder
241547 Lead oxide Pb3O4 99 red powder
229725 Lead(II) fluoride PbF2 99.99 powder and chunks
236152 Lead(II) fluoride PbF2 99 powder
203580 Lead(II) nitrate Pb(NO3)2 99.999 crystals and lumps
solid
203610 Lead(II) oxide PbO 99.999 powder and chunks
518131 Lead(IV) oxide PbO2 99.998 powder
203629 Lithium carbonate Li2CO3 99.997 powder
431559 Lithium carbonate Li2CO3 99.99 powder
752843 Lithium carbonate Green Alternative Li2CO3 99.999 powder
377449 Manganese(II) carbonate MnCO3 99.9 powder
63539 Manganese(II) carbonate hydrate MnCO3 · xH2O 44, 46  
339288 Manganese(II) fluoride MnF2 98 powder
431761 Manganese(II) oxide MnO 99.99 powder and chunks
377201 Manganese(II) oxide MnO 99 powder
377473 Manganese(II,III) oxide Mn3O4 97 powder
339296 Manganese(III) fluoride MnF3 99.9 powder
463701 Manganese(III) oxide Mn2O3 99.9 solid
377457 Manganese(III) oxide Mn2O3 99 powder
529664 Manganese(IV) oxide MnO2 99.99 powder and chunks
203750 Manganese(IV) oxide Green Alternative MnO2 99.99 solid
205133 Praseodymium(III) nitrate hexahydrate Pr(NO3)3·6H2O 99.9 crystalline
558249 Praseodymium(III) oxide Pr2O3 99.9 powder
205176 Praseodymium(III,IV) oxide Pr6O11 99.9 powder
394394 Samarium(III) oxide Sm2O3 99.999 powder
392537 Samarium(III) oxide Sm2O3 99.99 powder
228672 Samarium(III) oxide Sm2O3 99.9 powder
209643 Selenium Se 99.99 pellets
204307 Selenium Se 99.999 pellets
229865 Selenium Se 99.99 powder
209651 Selenium Se 99.5 powder
85131 Silver Ag 65, 75 colloidal
265500 Silver Ag 99.99 powder
327107 Silver Ag 99.99 powder
327093 Silver Ag 99.9 powder
327085 Silver Ag 99.9 powder
204390 Silver nitrate AgNO3 99.9999 crystalline
solid
451304 Terbium(III) chloride TbCl3 99.99 powder
439657 Terbium(III) chloride TbCl3 99.9 powder
204560 Terbium(III) chloride hexahydrate TbCl3 · 6H2O 99.999 powder and chunks
212903 Terbium(III) chloride hexahydrate TbCl3 · 6H2O 99.9 solid
432067 Terbium(III) fluoride TbF3 99.99 powder
590509 Terbium(III) oxide Tb2O3 99.99 powder
204579 Terbium(III,IV) oxide Tb4O7 99.999 powder
253952 Terbium(III,IV) oxide Tb4O7 99.9 powder
204676 Thulium(III) oxide Tm2O3 99.99 powder
289167 Thulium(III) oxide Tm2O3 99.9 powder
518174 Tin(II) oxide SnO 99.99 powder
367168 Tin(II) sulfide SSn 96  
741000 Tin(II) sulfide SSn 99.99 granular
204714 Tin(IV) oxide SnO2 99.99 powder and chunks
244651 Tin(IV) oxide SnO2 99.9 powder
379174 Titanium(II) oxide TiO 99.5 pieces
481041 Titanium(II) oxide TiO 99.9 powder
481033 Titanium(III) oxide Ti2O3 99.9 powder
232033 Titanium(IV) oxide, anatase TiO2 99.8 powder
248576 Titanium(IV) oxide, anatase TiO2 99 powder
204730 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile TiO2 99.995 powder and chunks
204757 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile TiO2 99.98 powder
635057 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile TiO2 99.99 (single crystal substrate)
(single side polished)
635049 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile TiO2 99.99 (single crystal substrate)
(single side polished)
635065 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile TiO2 99.99 single crystal substrate
single side polished
224227 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile TiO2 99.9 powder
769371 Titanium(IV) oxide New TiO2   pellets
432121 Ytterbium(III) fluoride YbF3 99.98 powder
204889 Ytterbium(III) oxide Yb2O3 99.99 powder
246999 Ytterbium(III) oxide Yb2O3 99.9 powder
229997 Zinc chloride ZnCl2 99.999 crystals and lumps
450111 Zinc chloride ZnCl2 99.99 amorphous
beads
456845 Zinc chloride ZnCl2 99.999 amorphous
beads
429430 Zinc chloride ZnCl2 99.995 powder
703516 Zinc chloride solution Green Alternative ZnCl2   liquid
204951 Zinc oxide ZnO 99.999 powder
255750 Zinc oxide ZnO 99.99 powder
587583 Zinc phosphate Zn3(PO4)2 99.998 powder and chunks
254320 Zinc telluride ZnTe 99.99 powder