Perovskite Materials

Organometallic Perovskites as High-Efficiency Light Harvesters

Solar energy represents the largest potential segment of non-carbon energy and therefore its conversion into electric energy offers an interesting research challenge. Traditionally, high efficiencies have been achieved in solar cells based on single crystals of silicon and other semiconducting compounds.1 Recently, the organo-lead halide-based perovskites with the formula CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) have attracted considerable attention as light harvesters due to their high conversion efficiencies.2 Their self assembling characteristics allow these perovskite-based hybrids to be readily synthesized with the potential to be a low-cost and high efficiency light harvester for solar cells.3,4

During the fabrication processes for these devices, CH3NH3PbX3 organometallics are commonly synthesized both in one-step and two-step processes.5,6 In the one-step synthesis process, the perovskite pigment is deposited in a single step onto a porous metal oxide film using a mixture of PbX2 and CH3NH3X in a common solvent such as γ-butyrolactone and dimethylformamide.5 For two-step synthesis processes, PbX2 is first introduced in the porous metal oxide from a solution and is then transformed into the perovskite by exposure of the resulting lead halide-loaded porous material to a solution of CH3NH3X.6 Sigma Aldrich offers a complete portfolio of precursors for the synthesis of these organometallic perovskites.
Figure 1: The cross-sectional SEM image of a CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cell device (left). The middle of the picture shows the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 adsorbed TiO2 and right of the picture shows perovskite structure. Green, gray, and red spheres represent the CH3NH3+, Pb2+ and I-, respectively. Adapted from Ref. 5.

References
1. M. Wright and A. Uddin, Solar Energy Materials and Solar cells 2012, 107, 87.
2. M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, M. Tsutomu, N. Takurou, and H. J. Snaith, Science 2012, 338, 643.
3. M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, Natutre 2013, 501, 395.
4. J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 1764.
5. N-G. Park, Material Matters, 2013, 8 (4), 126.
6. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S-J Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Gratzel, Nature 2013, 499, 316.

Lead Halides

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Form

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460583 Lead(II) bromide Br2Pb 99.999 beads
398853 Lead(II) bromide Br2Pb 99.999 powder
211141 Lead(II) bromide Br2Pb 98 powder
449865 Lead(II) chloride Cl2Pb 99.999 beads
203572 Lead(II) chloride Cl2Pb 99.999 powder and chunks
268690 Lead(II) chloride Cl2Pb 98 powder
554359 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99.999 beads
203602 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99.999 solid
211168 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99 powder
900168 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99.999  
795550 Lead(II) iodide solution PbI2   solution

Organohalide Products

Product #

Description

Concentration

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805971 Acetamidinium iodide  
806196 Benzylammonium iodide  
805874 n-Butylammonium iodide  
806102 t-Butylammonium iodide  
805866 i-Butylammonium iodide  
806188 Diethylammonium iodide  
805831 Dimethylammonium iodide  
805823 Ethylammonium Iodide  
806048 Formamidinium iodide  
806056 Guanidinium iodide  
805963 Imidazolium iodide  
295531 Methylamine Green Alternative  
534102 Methylamine solution Green Alternative 33 wt. % in absolute ethanol
395048 Methylamine solution Green Alternative 2.0 M in methanol
395056 Methylamine solution Green Alternative 2.0 M in THF
806498 Methylammonium bromide  
793507 Methylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
808407 Methylammonium bromide solution 0.18 M in 2-propanol
0.18±0.2 M
809039 Methylammonium chlorodiiodoplumbate(II) precursor solution  
808431 Methylammonium iodide 0.42 M in 2-propanol
0.42 M±0.04 M
793493 Methylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
806390 Methylammonium iodide  
793833 Methylammonium triiodoplumbate(II) precursor solution 40 wt. % in DMF
805904 Phenethylammonium iodide  
805912 Phenylammonium iodide  
805858 n-Propylammonium iodide  
805882 i-Propylammonium iodide  

Titania Nanomaterials for Supports

Product #

Description

Particle Size

Form

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791555 Titania paste, active opaque     paste (cream)
791539 Titania paste, reflector     paste (white)
791547 Titania paste, transparent     paste (yellow)
513415 Titanium <100 nm
98.5 dispersion
nanoparticles
798495 Titanium dioxide 22 nm
22-25 nm (BET)
95 paste (nanocrystalline colloid)
798509 Titanium dioxide 18 nm
18-20 nm (BET)
  paste (nanocrystalline colloid)
798517 Titanium dioxide     paste (nanocrystalline colloid)
798525 Titanium dioxide 18 nm
18-20 nm (BET)
95 paste (nanocrystalline colloid)
718467 Titanium(IV) oxide   99.5 nanopowder
637254 Titanium(IV) oxide, anatase <25 nm
99.7 nanopowder
634662 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <100 nm (BET)
<50 nm (XRD)
99.5 nanopowder
700355 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <250 nm (DLS)
~21 nm (primary particle size of starting nanopowder)
99.9 nanoparticle
paste
700347 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <150 nm (volume distribution, DLS)
~21 nm (primary particle size of starting nanopowder)
99.5 dispersion
nanoparticles
700339 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <100 nm
~30 nm (primary particle size of starting nanopowder)
99.9 dispersion
nanoparticles
637262 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile <100 nm
99.5 nanopowder

Titania Precursors

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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325252 Titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) C16H28O6Ti  
377996 Titanium(IV) isopropoxide C12H28O4Ti 99.999
205273 Titanium(IV) isopropoxide C12H28O4Ti 97
87560 Titanium(IV) isopropoxide C12H28O4Ti 97

Hole Conductor Cobalt Dopants

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Purity

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805238 FK 102 Co(II) PF6 salt C24H21CoF12N9P2 98
805254 FK 102 Co(III) PF6 salt C24H21CoF18N9P3 98
805246 FK 102 Co(II) TFSI salt C28H21CoN11O8S4F12 98
805203 FK 102 Co(III) TFSI salt C30H21CoN12O12S6F18 98
805378 FK 209 Co(II) PF6 salt C36H45CoF12N9P2 98
805408 FK 209 Co(III) PF6 salt C36H45CoF18N9P3 98
805386 FK 209 Co(II) TFSI salt C40H45CoF12N11O8S4 98
805394 FK 209 Co(III) TFSI salt C42H45CoF18O12N12S6 98
805521 FK 269 Co(III) PF6 salt C22H18CoF18N10P3 98
805815 FK 269 Co(II) TFSI salt C26H18CoN12O8S4F12 98
805807 FK 269 Co(III) TFSI salt C28H18CoF18N13O12S6 98

Hole Transporting Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Purity

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804894 H101 C46H40N2O6S 98

Halide Sources

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Concentration

Details

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210013 Hydriodic acid HI 99.99 57 wt. % in H2O
 
210021 Hydriodic acid HI 99.95 57 wt. % in H2O
 
398098 Hydriodic acid HI 55, 58    
248649 Hydriodic acid HI 47    
58160 Hydriodic acid HI 67    
50486 Hydriodic acid HI 55, 60    
752851 Hydriodic acid HI 99.999 57 wt. %
 
339245 Hydrobromic acid HBr 99.99 48 wt. % in H2O
48% aqueous HBr
438065 Hydrobromic acid HBr 47, 48, 49   48% aqueous HBr
244260 Hydrobromic acid HBr 47, 48, 49   48% aqueous HBr
268003 Hydrobromic acid HBr 48   48% aqueous HBr