Determination of Water Content in Trichloroacetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Product Group

Carboxylic acids

General Information concerning the product group

Carboxylic acids

Most carboxylic acids can be analysed relatively easily following standard KF titration methods. Due to their weakly acidic properties they exhibit only a slight effect on the pH of the KF solution. Only the stronger acids require neutralisation or buffering of the solvent prior to measuring. This is achieved by the use of organic amines. In some cases esterification with methanol results in the formation of water. This potential interference should especially be taken into account with coulometric determination. In the event of solubility problems solubilisers may be added. With some substances, only the adherent moisture can be determined by volumetric titration, or alternatively KF oven technology may be employed.

Special Information concerning the sample and the methods

Because the halogenic derivatives of acetic acid are more reactive than acetic acid, they show a stronger tendency for esterification in methanolic solutions. Water determination by Karl Fischer thus requires small sample sizes and more frequent changing of the KF solvent. In methanolic KF solutions the side reaction may be somewhat reduced through buffering (e.g. with imidazole or Aquastar™ - buffer solution for strong acids). The coulometric method is not suitable for this substance.

Titration one component system

Reagents:

Titrant
188005 Aquastar™ - CombiTitrant 5 - One component reagent for volumetric Karl Fischer titration, 1 mL = approx. 5 mg water
or
188002 Aquastar™ - CombiTitrant 2 - One component reagent for volumetric Karl Fischer titration, 1 mL = approx. 2 mg water

Solvent
50 mL 188008 Aquastar™ - CombiSolvent - Methanol-free solvent for volumetric Karl Fischer titration with one component reagents
or
30 ml 188009 Aquastar™- CombiMethanol - Solvent for volumetric Karl Fischer titration with one component reagents, max. 0,01% water

Titration Parameters:
Default titration settings, e.g.:
I(pol) = 20 - 50 µA, U(EP) = 100 - 250 mV
Stop criterion for fast titration: drift < 30 µL/min

Sample size:
2 g

Procedure:
The titration medium is first placed into the cell and titrated dry by means of the titrant. Then the sample is added from a weighing boat (exact sample weight determination by weighing of weighing boat before and after addition) and the titration is started. Titration is carried out to fast end point. If cell drift rises strongly and titration time increases significantly, the KF solvent must be changed.

Titration two component system

Reagents:

Titrant
188011 Aquastar™ - Titrant 2 - Titrant for volumetric titration with two component reagents, 1 mL = approx. 2 mg water
or
188010 Aquastar™ - Titrant 5 - Titrant for volumetric titration with two component reagents, 1 mL = approx. 5 mg water

Solvent
20 mL 188015 Aquastar™ - Solvent - Solvent for volumetric titration with two component reagents
and
30 ml 188035 Aquastar™-buffer solution for strong acid - null

Titration Parameters:
Default titration settings, e.g.:
I(pol) = 20 - 50 µA, U(EP) = 100 - 250 mV
Stop criterion for fast titration: drift < 30 µL/min

Sample size:
2 g

Procedure:
The titration medium is first placed into the titration cell and titrated dry by means of the titrant. Then the sample is added from a weighing boat(exact sample weight determination by weighing of weighing boat before and after addition) and the titration is started. Titration is carried out to fast end point. If cell drift strongly rises and titration time significantly increases, the KF solvent must be changed.

Materials

     
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