Analytical Standards for Persistent Organic Pollutants
By: Matthias Nold, Analytix 2009, 5, 11.
Product Manager Analytical Standards email@example.com
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a threat to human health and to the environment. Since they are very stable and hydrophobic molecules, they bio-accumulate through the food web and pose signifi cant health risks such as cancer, birth defects, reproductive disorders, and dysfunctional nervous and immune systems in humans and in wildlife. Polar regions are most exposed, since many toxins are swept to the Arctic by ocean or air currents; no individual in any global region, however, is free from measurable traces of POPs.
With the aim to eradicate the most dangerous of these chemicals, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was organised under the guidance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2001. The Convention, which entered into force in May 2004, listed the 12 most dangerous POPs (called the “dirty dozen”) that shall be either outlawed or strictly limited. These 12 initial chemicals included a range of chlorinated pesticides (DDT, Aldrin, Chlordane, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex and Toxaphene) as well as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
In May 2009, a follow-up conference was held in Geneva to update the list of hazardous chemicals. Parties agreed to expand the list by nine more chemicals, including the insecticide Lindane, α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane, the pesticide chlordecone, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid, pentachlorobenzene as well as hexabromobiphenyl, and two bromodiphenylether congeners (BDE) which are used as fl ame retardants.
The goal of the convention, to protect human health and the global community by reducing and eventually eradicating these dangerous substances, is a very challenging one. Analytical chemistry can supply an important contribution by measuring the levels of persistent organic pollutants in food and in the environment. This not only protects consumers from the exposure and uptake of these toxins, but also helps monitor the progress of the worldwide elimination of POPs.
|Product Name||Prod. No.||Brand||Pack Size|
|Aldrin solution 100 ng/μL in acetonitrile||36664||Fluka||2 mL; 10 mL|
|Chlordane (technical mixture)||45378||Fluka||250 mg|
|α-Chlordane solution 10 ng/μl in cyclohexane||31197||Fluka||2 mL|
|Dieldrin solution 100 ng/μL in acetonitrile||36660||Fluka||2 mL|
|Endrin solution 200 ng/μL in isooctane||48976||Supelco||10 mL|
|Heptachlor solution 100 ng/μL in methanol||31211||Fluka||2 mL; 10 mL|
|Hexachlorobenzene solution 1000 ng/μL in acetone||40008||Supelco||1 mg|
|Hexachlorobenzene -13C6||606332||Aldrich||10 mg|
|Mirex solution 100ng/μL in acetonitrile||45887||Fluka||10 mL|
|Toxaphene solution 500ng/μL in methanol||48243||Supelco||1 mL|
|4,4’-DDT 100ng/μL in methanol||36662||Fluka||2 mL|
|Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (“dioxins”)||For a complete list of Dioxin standards available at Sigma- Aldrich please see: sigmaaldrich.com/dioxinstandards|
|Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)||For a complete list of PCB standards available at Sigma-Aldrich please see: sigmaaldrich.com/PCBstandards|
|Table 1Standards for the first series of banned persistent organic pollutants (“dirty dozen”)|
Figure 1 Structures of some of the persistent organic pollutants recently added to the list of banned chemicals
Sigma-Aldrich provides analytical standards for the hazardous chemicals targeted by the Stockholm Convention. Tables 1 and 2 list standards (neats and solutions) and, if available, isotopically marked standards suitable for the analysis of persistent organic pollutants.
|Product Name||Prod. No.||Brand||Pack Size|
|Lindane solution 200 ng/μL in isooctane||48960-U||Supelco||10 mL|
|Lindane -13C6||606715||Aldrich||on demand|
|α-Hexachlorocyclohexane solution 100 ng/μL in methanol||36658||Fluka||2 mL|
|β-Hexachlorocyclohexane solution 100 ng/μL in methanol||36584||Fluka||2 mL|
|*2,2‘,4,4‘,5-Pentabromodiphenylether (BDE-99) solution 50 ng/μL in isooctane||33676||Fluka||1 mL|
|Pentachlorobenzene solution 200 ng/μL in methanol||48386||Supelco||1 mL|
|Perfluoroctane sulphonate||33827||Fluka||100 mg|
|Perfluoroctane sulphonate solution 100 ng/μL in methanol||33607||Fluka||1 mL|
|Table 2 Standards for the second series of banned persistent organic pollutants|