Interleukin Family (IL)
By: Jennifer Fries, BioFiles 2009, 4.5, 16.
The Interleukins comprise a disparate group of cytokines and growth factors that are produced by and released from leukocytes. Interleukin-1β (1L-1β) is released primarily from stimulated macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in inflammatory and immune responses and may induce anti-tumor immunity. It activates T cells to proliferate and secrete IL-2. IL-2 is also known as T cell growth factor since it promotes longterm growth of activated T cells, activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and induction of INF-γ and B cell growth factor secretion. IL-3 is a colony-stimulating factor that induces colony formation of macrophages, neutrohils, mast cells, and megakaryocytes from hematopoietic progenitor cells. IL-3 also interacts with IL-2 to stimulate growth of T cells and to induce IgG secretion from activated B cells. IL-4 is produced by T cells and stimulates the growth and differentiation of immunologically competent cells and activates helper T cell (Th2) function. IL-5 is a hematopoietic cytokine that stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of eosinophils. It is also involved in B cell growth and antibody production and in the generation of cytotoxic T cells. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in the regulation of the acute-phase immune system response to infection and injury. IL-7 is a lymphoid cell growth factor that induces proliferation of pre-B, pro-B, and early T cells as well as certain leukemia and lymphomas. IL-8 is a chemokine of the CXC family that is chemotactic for neutrophils and induces the release of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow. IL-10 is produced by the Th2 cells, B cells, macrophages and keratinocytes. It is anti-inflammatory in that it inhibits the synthesis of cytokines in target cells at the mRNA transcription or translation level. However, it also enhances the function of B cells and cytotoxic T cells. IL-12 is produced predominantly by monocytes and NK cells and induces T cells and NK cells to produce IFN-γ. IL-12 has antiangiogenic properties. IL-13 is produced predominantly by Th2 cells and induces B cell proliferation and differentiation. IL-15 is a cytokine produced in macrophages and T cells that enhances T cell proliferation and maintains CD8 (+) cytotoxic T cell survival.
Interleukin 16 (IL-16), also know as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor LCF, is a proinflammatory cytokine that is chemotactic for CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils.
- Apte, R.N., and Voronov, E., Interleukin-1 - a major pleiotropic cytokine in tumor-host interactions. Semin. Cancer Biol. 12, 277-290 (2002).
- Mocellin, S., et al., Tumor microenvironment: what have we learned studying the immune response in this puzzling battlefield? Tumori. 88, 437-444 (2002).
- Reddy, E.P., et al., IL-3 signaling and the role of Src kinases, JAKS, and STATs: a covert liaison unveiled. Oncogene 19, 2532-2547 (2002).
- Ngai, S., and Toi, M., Interleukin-4 and breast cancer. Breast Cancer 7, 181-186 (2000).
- Apostolopoulos, V., et al., A role for IL-5 in the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo. Eur. J. Immunol. 30, 1733-1739 (2000).
- Ishihara, K., and Hirano, T., IL-6 in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory proliferative disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13, 357-368 (2002).
- Al-Rawi, M.A., et al., Aberrant expression of interleukin7 (IL-7) and its signaling complex in human breast cancer. Eur. J. Cancer 40, 494-502 (2004).
- Xie, K., Interleukin-8 and human cancer biology. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 12, 375-391 (2001).
- Konti, P., et al., IL-10, an inflammatory/inhibitory cytokine, but not always. Immunol. Lett. 86, 123-129 (2003).
- Li, S., IL-12-based therapy of malignancies. Drugs Today 37, 629-637 (2001).
- Wynn, T.A., IL-13 effector functions. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21, 425-456 (2003).
- Klebanoff, C.A., et al., IL-15 enhances the in vivo antitumor activity of tumor-reactive CD8 (+) T cells. Proc, Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1969-1974 (2004).