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Introduction to Yeast Media

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Introduction

Diagram of a typical yeast cell

A Typical Yeast Cell

Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms whose genomes have been comprehensively studied and some have been sequenced. They are relatively easy to grow under laboratory conditions. Moreover, despite their small genome size, they display cellular features and processes that are highly conserved amongst most eukaryotes. For instance, they have membrane-bound organelles, cytoskeleton, nuclear DNA, and transcription mechanisms that are similar to those found in higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, yeasts have many well-characterized secretory proteins and pheromones. Several yeast genes involved in protease processing and secretion have also been identified. Thus, yeasts can be used for several eukaryotic gene and protein studies with the aid of suitable molecular biology tools. Some applications for yeast cultures include synthesis of protein expression systems, the study of specific gene or protein functions, and the analyses of novel protein interactions. They are also used for many industrial applications such as fermentation, baking, and bioremediation.

Yeast culture media play a significant role in supporting growth in both small and large scale purposes. Typically, a yeast culture medium includes peptone, yeast extract, and dextrose or glucose. Even slight differences in media composition can yield yeasts with distinct growth characteristics.

Types of Yeast Media

Classification of Complex Yeast Growth Media

Diagram showing the classification of complex yeast growth media


Classification of Synthetic Yeast Growth Media

Diagram showing the classification of synthetic yeast growth media


The minimal synthetic media can be used with drop-out medium supplements to create selective media for growing auxotrophic yeast cultures.

Furthermore, yeast strains can be sporulated using specific sporulation media. Indicator media can also be used to distinguish yeast strains that either ferment or do not ferment specific sugars, such as galactose or maltose.

Options with Yeast Media from Sigma

Sigma-Aldrich offers a broad range of high-quality yeast culture media to suit your unique research needs. They are listed as follows:

1.   YPD medium
A nutritious medium available in liquid (broth) or solid (agar) forms for the growth and propagation of yeast cultures. It primarily contains of bacteriological peptone, yeast extract, and glucose. This medium is non-selective for Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces.

2.   Yeast Synthetic Drop-out Medium Supplements
The selection of plasmids in yeast is usually based on the use of auxotrophic mutant strains, which cannot grow without a specific medium component (like an amino acid, purine, or pyrimidine). Transformation with a plasmid containing the mutated gene enables the transformant to grow on a medium lacking the required component. Thus, drop-out medium supplements can be used to select transformed yeast cultures.
Please refer to the selection guide below for further details.

3.   Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB with or without amino acids)
Yeast Nitrogen Base is a highly-referenced growth medium used for the cultivation of yeast. This nutrient-rich microbial medium contains nitrogen, vitamins, trace elements, and salts. It is suitable for use in classifying yeasts based on amino acid and carbon requirements. With an added carbon source, YNB with amino acids can be used for susceptibility testing of fungi.

4. EnPressoTM Y Defined Growth System is a proprietary formulation of buffering salts, amino acids, carbon source and polysaccharides. The formulation is designed to yield at least 2x more protein compared to traditional culture media.

Sigma-Aldrich Selection Guide to Yeast Culture Media

YPD & YNB Media

Product Number
Name Description Media Components Selectivity Reconstitution
Y1375 YPD Broth liquid growth medium for yeast 20g/L peptone
10g/L yeast extract
20g/L glucose
non-selective for Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces & Zygosaccharomyces -Suspend 50g in 1L of distilled water
-Autoclave for 15 minutes at 121°C
Y1500 YPD Agar solid growth medium for yeast 20g/L peptone
10g/L yeast extract
20g/L glucose
15g/L agar
non-selective for Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces & Zygosaccharomyces -Suspend 65g in 1L of distilled water
-Heat to boiling while stirring to dissolve all ingredients completely
-Autoclave for 15 minutes at 121°C
Y0626 Yeast Nitrogen Base Without Amino Acids highly-referenced growth medium yeast consists of nitrogen source, vitamins, trace elements and salts non-selective for Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces & Zygosaccharomyces -Make a 10x concentrated stock solution by stirring to suspend 6.8g yeast nitrogen base powder, 5g glucose, and 5-10mg of appropriate amino acid in 100mL water
-Warm if necessary to aid solubilisation
-Filter sterilize and store at 2-8°C.
-Dilute the 10x concentrated stock to a 1x working solution by adding 100mL concentrated stock to 900mL sterile water
Y1250 Yeast Nitrogen Base With Amino Acids non-selective, highly-referenced growth medium for yeast consists of nitrogen source, vitamins, amino acids, trace elements and salts non-selective for Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces -Make a 10x concentrated stock solution by stirring to suspend 6.7g yeast nitrogen base powder and 5g glucose in 100mL water
-Warm if necessary to aid solubilization
-Filter sterilize and store at 2-8°C
-Dilute the 10x concentrated stock to a 1x working solution by adding 100mL concentrated stock to 900mL sterile water
Y22001 EnPresso Y Defined defined growth media proprietary formulation of buffering salts, amino acids, carbon and polysaccharides non-selective for Pichia & Saccharomyces Suspend tablet in water and shake to dissolve

 


Synthetic Drop-Out Medium Supplements

Note: The following mixtures of amino acids and other nutrients need to be added to Yeast Nitrogen Base Without Amino Acids (Catalog Number Y0626).

Product Number
Missing Supplements
Amino Acids
Other Nutrients
Y1501 Uracil All standard amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L except for leucine, which is present at 380mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (7 mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L)
Y1751 Histidine All standard amino acids except for histidine. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L except for leucine, which is present at 380mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), uracil (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L)
Y1896 Lysine All standard amino acids except for lysine. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L except for leucine, which is present at 380mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), uracil (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L)
Y1376 Leucine All standard amino acids except for leucine. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L), uracil (76mg/L)
Y1876 Tryptophan All standard amino acids except for tryptophan. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L except for leucine, which is present at a concentration of 380mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L), uracil (76mg/L)
Y0750 Leucine and Tryptophan All standard amino acids except for leucine and tryptophan. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L), uracil (76mg/L)
Y1771 Uracil, Leucine and Tryptophan All other standard amino acids except for leucine and tryptophan. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L)
Y2146 Histidine, Leucine, and Tryptophan All standard amino acids except for histidine, leucine and tryptophan. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L), uracil (76mg/L)
Y2021 Histidine, Leucine, Tryptophan, and Adenine All standard amino acids except for histidine, leucine and tryptophan. All the amino acids are present at a concentration of 76mg/L. Inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L), uracil (76mg/L).
Y2001 Histidine, Leucine, Tryptophan, and Uracil All standard amino acids, except for histidine, leucine and tryptophan, are present at a concentration of 76mg/L. Adenine (18mg/L), inositol (76mg/L), p-aminobenzoic acid (8mg/L).

 

 

Other Supplements for Yeast Cultures

 

Product Number
Name
Description
Application
Features & Benefits
T2559 EZMix™ Tryptone Peptone derived from the enzymatic digest of casein; rich in tryptophan; also contains a mixture of nitrogen, amino acids, & vitamins Often used in culture media
Tryptone EZMix powder provides:
- Granulated, dust-free format for safer handling and faster mixing
- Easy scale-up using larger package sizes
G5516 Glycerol Viscous liquid widely used in
molecular biology research
used for storage of microbial stocks The product is Molecular Biology grade and is suitable for molecular biology applications

 

Growth Test Results for Sigma-Aldrich's Synthetic Media

+ = growth observed; = no growth observed

Table Showing Growth Test Results for Sigma-Aldrich's Synthetic Media

Materials

     

References

  1. Atlas, R. M. (2004). Handbook of microbiological media (Vol. 1). CRC press.
  2. F. Sherman, Getting started with yeast, Methods Enzymol. 350, 3-41 (2002)
  3. Kaiser C., Michaelis, S., and Mitchel, A., Methods in Yeast Genetics, a Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: 1994).

 

EZMix is a trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC.