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Chondroitinase for Neural Regeneration Research

Repairing the Information Highway

Chondroitin-Related Reagents for Neural Regeneration Research

chondroitin related reagents to repair the brains information highway

 

The spinal cord is the information highway system for the brain. And axons are the road that allows information data to be transferred. So, when a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs and axons are injured, that break in the road could stop all information -- leading to loss of sensory and motor function. One of the reasons information delivery to the brain will halt is because axons don’t fully repair themselves when injured. Instead, when axons are injured, axonal regeneration inhibitors accumulate at the injury site including a family of inhibitors called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). These inhibitors are major components of the glial scar that is formed by activated astrocytes1-3. The glial scar is a physical and molecular barrier that prevents axonal regrowth, thus preventing any information on the road to pass through. But what if there was a way to remove some of that scaring, so the axon could regrow and the road could be used again. Recent research with Chondrotinase ABC is showing promise in in doing just that.

chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with GAG side chain accumulation

The CSPG inhibitors include core proteins (aggrecan, neurocan, versican and NG2) with a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chain.2 The GAG side chain is a major factor that is responsible for blocking axon regrowth. However, by treating the blocked axon site with a chondroitinase ABC enzyme the CSPGs can be degraded. This enzyme catalyzed reaction removes GAG side chains and as a result there is some recovery of the spinal cord.4 This mechanism shows promise for work in in vivo and in vitro models of CNS damage repair (e.g. perineuronal net removal and neural regeneration), disc degeneration and low back pain (LBP), with hopes to ultimately lead to new treatments and therapies for patients.

This enzyme catalyzed reaction removes GAG side chains and as a result there is some recovery of the spinal cord.

 

Chondroitinase ABC Enzymatic Reaction Scheme

 

Chondroitinase ABC catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing (1-4)-β-D-hexosaminyl and (1-3)-β-D-glucuronosyl or (1-3)-α-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-β-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. It acts on chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate, and acts slowly on hyaluronate.5 The molecular weight is found to be approximately 120 kDa with 2 non-identical subunits of molecular masses 86 kDa and 32 kDa. The pH optimum is found to be 8.0 with chondroitin sulfate and 6.8 with hyaluronic acid and temperature optimum is 37 °C. 1 mM Zn2+ acts as an inhibitor, while 0.05 M acetate is an activator of the enzyme.

Chodroitinase Enzymes

Product No. Description
C2905 Chondroitinase ABC from Proteus vulgaris
C3667 Chondroitinase ABC from Proteus vulgaris, BSA free
E2039 Chondroitinase AC from Flavobacterium heparinum
C2780 Chondroitinase AC from Flavobacterium heparinum
C8058 Chondroitinase B from Flavobacterium heparinum
C0954 Chondroitinase C from Flavobacterium heparinum

 

Antibodies

Coronal section of the developing cerebral cortex of an embryonic day 16 rat stained with Monoclonal Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate

Immunofluorescence: Coronal section of the developing cerebral cortex of an embryonic day 16 rat stained with Monoclonal Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate, clone no. CS-56 (Product No. C8035) followed by fluorescein labeled Goat Anti-Mouse Ig. The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) is most concentrated in the pia matter and the sub-plate (bright green layers). There is moderate staining in the intermediate zone, and there is very little CSPG in the cortical plate and ventricular zone. The cortex was stained with bis-benzimide (Product No. B2883) that labels the cell nucleus and fluoresces blue under ultraviolet illumination.From B. Miller, Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

 

Product No. Description
SAB4200696 Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate antibody, Mouse monoclonal
AB5320B Anti-NG2 Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan, Biotin Conjugate Antibody
MAB2029 Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Antibody, clone 9.2.27
MAB5384 Anti-NG2 Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Antibody
MAB1582 Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Antibody, carbohydrate epitope, clone Cat-316
AB5320 Anti-NG2 Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Antibody
C8035 Monoclonal Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate antibody produced in mouse
MAB5284 Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Antibody, Brain (core protein), clone Cat-301
MAB2030  Anti-Chondroitin 4 Sulfate Antibody, clone BE-123
MAB2035 Anti-Chondroitin 6 Sulfate Antibody, clone MK-302
HPA014764 Anti-DSE antibody produced in rabbit

 

Other Related Products

Primary neurons isolated from the hippocampus of a day 18 embryonic Sprague Daley rat stained with Monoclonal Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)

Primary neurons isolated from the hippocampus of a day 18 embryonic Sprague Daley rat stained with Monoclonal Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), clone G-A-5 (Product No. G3893) at a 1:600 dilution (green), Rabbit Anti-Neurofilament (red) and bisBenzimide (blue). From Kenneth Reese, BrainBits, Springfield, IL.

 

Product No. Description
C3788 Chondroitin sulfate B sodium salt
C3920 Chondroitin disaccharide Δdi-0S sodium salt
C4045 Chondroitin disaccharide Δdi-4S sodium salt
C4170 Chondroitin disaccharide Δdi-6S sodium salt
C4384 Chondroitin sulfate sodium salt from shark cartilage
C5820 Chondroitin disaccharide Δdi-UA-2S sodium salt
C6737 Chondroitin sulfate sodium salt from bovine cartilage


Related Items

Product No. Description
Tubulin III
T8578 Anti-β-Tubulin III antibody produced in rabbit ~1 mg/mL, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
T2200 Anti-β-Tubulin III antibody produced in rabbit affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
SAB2502108 Anti-TUBB3 antibody produced in goat affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
SAB4500088 Anti-Tubulin β, C-Terminal antibody produced in rabbit ~1 mg/mL, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
SAB4300623 Anti-Tubulin β-III antibody produced in rabbit affinity isolated antibody
Anti-Growth Associated Protein 43
HPA013392 Anti-GAP43 antibody produced in rabbit
SAB4300525 Anti-GAP43 (Ab-41) antibody produced in rabbit
SAB1405847 Anti-GAP43 antibody produced in mouse
SAB4501101 Anti-GAP43, N-Terminal antibody produced in rabbit
SAB1402204 Monoclonal Anti-GAP43 antibody produced in mouse
SAB4300223 Anti-phospho-GAP43 (pSer41) antibody produced in rabbit
Protein Kinase C Gamma
R5031 Anti-PRKCG (676-688) antibody produced in rabbit
R4906 Anti-PRKCG (91-105) antibody produced in rabbit
HPA054560 Anti-PRKCG antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution
HPA047870 Anti-PRKCG antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution
SAB1304712 ANTI-MOUSE PRKCG (N-TERM) antibody produced in rabbit
SAB1300371 Anti-PKCγ (C-term) antibody produced in rabbit
SAB1306352 ANTI-PKC GAMMA(C-TERMINAL) antibody produced in rabbit
SAB2104573 Anti-PRKCG, (N-terminal) antibody produced in rabbit
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
G3893 Monoclonal Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) antibody produced in mouse clone G-A-5, ascites fluid
C9205 Monoclonal Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)−Cy3™ antibody produced in mouse clone G-A-5, purified from hybridoma cell culture
G6171 Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein antibody, Mouse monoclonal clone G-A-5, purified from hybridoma cell culture
HPA063513 Anti-GFAP antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution
HPA056030 Anti-GFAP antibody produced in rabbit Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution
SAB5500113 Anti-GFAP antibody, Rabbit monoclonal clone SP78, affinity isolated antibody
SAB5201113 Monoclonal Anti-Gfap - Alkaline Phosphatase antibody produced in mouse clone S206A-8, purified immunoglobulin
SAB5201131 Monoclonal Anti-Gfap - Alkaline Phosphatase antibody produced in mouse clone S206B-9, purified immunoglobulin
Detection and Visualization Reagents
C9903 Cholera Toxin B subunit ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), lyophilized powder
C167 Cholera Toxin B subunit Solid
C9972 Cholera Toxin B subunit biotin conjugate, lyophilized powder
C1655 Cholera Toxin B subunit FITC conjugate, lyophilized powder
C3741 peroxidase conjugate (Contains ~ 2 moles HRP/mole of CTB. ~100 μg HRP conjugated to ~45 μg CTB), lyophilized powder
Biotinylated Dextran Amine (BDA)
  Pathway Tracing Using Biotinylated Dextran Amines.
Fluoro-Gold (can be used to confirm axonal regeneration)
39286
Hydroxystilbamidine bis(methanesulfonate),  suitable for fluorescence, ≥96.0% (HPLC)
Proteoglycan Regulation
D0627 N6,2′-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt

 

 References

  1. McKeon RJ, Jurynec MJ, Buck CR. The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan and phosphacan are expressed by reactive astrocytes in the chronic CNS glial scar. Journal of Neuroscience. 1999; 19(24):10778-10788. PMID: 10594061.
  2. Jones LL, Margolis RU, Tuszynski MH. The chondrotin sulphate proteoglycans neurocan, brevican, phosphacan, and versican are differentially regulated following spinal cord injury. Experimental Neurology. 2003; 182(2):399-411. PMID: 12895450.
  3. Silver J, The glial scar is more than just astrocytes. Experimental Neurology. 2016; 286:147–149. PMID: 27328838.
  4. Bradbury EJ, Moon LD, Popat RJ, King VR, Bennett GS, Patel PN, Fawcett JW, McMahon SB. Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Nature. 2002; 416(6881):636-640. PMID: 11948352.
  5. IUBMB. 1992. Enzyme Nomenclature. San Diego (CA): Academic Press.