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Functionalized Fullerenes: Nanomaterials for Organic Electronics

Material Matters 2007, 2.1, 18.

Material Matters 2007, 2.1, 18.

Fullerenes, the older nanomaterial relatives of carbon nanotubes, continue to stimulate advances in applied and fundamental science. Fullerenes are excellent electron acceptors and can be chemically modified to improve solubility in organic solvents. Such soluble fullerenes are some of the best n-type organic semiconductors available to make bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells (PVs)1,2 and field-effects transistors (OFETs).3 To help our customers achieve their research breakthroughs in organic electronics, Sigma-Aldrich is pleased to offer a line of functionalized fullerene products. Current products include PCBM (659169) and MP-C60 (668184)Table 1) and was recently used to make organic PVs with efficiencies ~4.4%.4 MP-C60 is another soluble electron acceptor often used as spectroscopic and redox reference for C60-donor conjugates.5,6

Sigma-Aldrich is always looking to offer new products that will help you in your research. Please visit us at for an up-to-date list of products, including new functionalized fullerenes.

Table 1. Conduction (LUMO) and valence (HOMO) band energies of p- and n-type organic semiconductors available from Sigma-Aldrich.2,3

Organic semiconductor Prod. No. LUMO HOMO Soluble in:
MDMO-PPV p-type 546461 -2.8 eV -5.0 eV chloroform chlorobenzene dichlorobenzene toluene
MEH-PPV p-type 541443(MW 40 – 70 kDa)
541435(MW 70 – 100 kDa)
536512(MW 150 – 250 kDa)
-3.2 eV -5.4 eV chloroform chlorobenzene dichlorobenzene toluene
P3HT p-type 445703 (regioregular)
510823 (regiorandom)
669067 (electronic grade)
-3.2 eV -5.1 eV chloroform chlorobenzene dichlorobenzene toluene
PCBM n-type 659169 -3.7 eV -6.1 eV chloroform chlorobenzene dichlorobenzene toluene

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  1. Coakley, K.M., McGehee, M.D., Chem. Mater., 2004, 16, 4533;
  2. Thompson, B.C., Kim, Y., Reynolds J.R., Macromolecules, 2005, 38, 5359; 
  3. Meijer E.J., De Leeuw, D.M., Setayesh, S., Van Veenendaal, E., Huisman, B.-H., Blom, P.W., Hummelen, J.C., Sherf, U., Klapwijk, T.M., Nat. Mater., 2003, 2, 678;
  4. Li, G., Shrotriya, V., Huang, J., Yao, Y., Moriarty, T., Emery, K., Yang, Y., Nat. Mater., 2005, 4, 864; 
  5. Guldi, D.M., Luo C., Swartz, A., Gomez, R., Segura, J.L., Martin, N., J. Phys. Chem. A, 2004, 108, 455; 
  6. Giacalone, F., Segura, J.L., Martin, N., Ramey, J., Guldi, D.M., Chem. Eur. J., 2005, 11, 4819.

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