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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Protocols

Adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with the overexpression of key reprogramming genes (OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, cMYC, NANOG and LIN28). Human iPSCs have the unique ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body including:

  • Ectodermal: Neuron, Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte, Retinal Epithelial Cell (RPE), Epidermal, Hair and Keratinocytes.
  • Endodermal: Hepatocyte, Pancreatic β-islet Cell, Intestinal Epithelial Cell, Lung Alveolar Cells.
  • Mesodermal: Hematopoietic, Endothelial Cell, Cardiomyocyte, Smooth Muscle Cell, Skeletal Muscle Cell, Renal cell, Adipocyte, Chondrocyte and Osteocytes.

IPSC Pathway

We offer a large collection of cell culture media, supplements, bioactive small molecules, and growth factors used to control the cell fate of human iPSCs. The table below highlights the most widely used protocols, media and characterization antibodies used to differentiate human iPSC’s into different cell lineages.


Differentiated Cell Type Media and Supplements Characterization Antibodies Reference
Neural Stem Cell DMEM/F12, Glutamine, Neurobasal Media, N2, B27, SB431542, CHIR99021, Compound E, Human LIF, Noggin, bFGF, EGF

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Nestin, PAX6, OTX2, SOX2 Highly efficient neural conversion of human ES and iPS cells by dual inhibition of SMAD signaling.
Cortical Neuron DMEM/F12, Glutamine, Neurobasal Media, N2, B27, SB431542, CHIR99021, Compound E, Noggin, bFGF, EGF

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MAP2, TBR1, CTIP2, VGLUT1 Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to cerebral cortex neurons and neural networks.
Dopaminergic Neuron DMEM/F12, Glutamine, Neurobasal Media, N2, B27, SB431542, CHIR99021, Compound E, Human LIF, SHH, FGF8, BDNF, GDNF, TGFβ3, cAMP

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TH, TUJ-1, LMX1A, FOXA2, NURR1 Directed differentiation of dopamine neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.
Motor Neurons DMEM/F12, Glutamine, Neurobasal Media, N2, B27, SB431542, CHIR99021, Compound E, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), SHH, BDNF, CNTF, GDNF Nestin, TUJ-1, ChAT, Islet1, Hb9, Hoxa2 Directed differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells generates active motor neurons.
Astrocyte DMEM/F12, Glutamine, B27, nonessential amino acids, Penicillin-Streptomycin, FBS, bFGF, CNTF, BMP4, Activin A, Heregulin 1β, IGF-1 GFAP, TUJ-1, CD44 Efficient Generation of Astrocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Defined Conditions.
Oligodendrocyte DMEM/F12, Glutamine, Neurobasal Media, N2, B27, SB431542, CHIR99021, Compound E, Human LIF, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), SHH, SAG, PDGF, IGF-I, NT3, Insulin, T3, cAMP PAX6, OLIG2, NKX2.2, O4, SOX10, MBP, MAP2 Efficient Generation of Myelinating Oligodendrocytes from Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients by Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Cardiomyocyte RPMI 1640, B27, rH-albumin, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, Lactate, CHIR99021, Wnt-C59 TNNT2, α-SMA, α-Actinin, vWF, MLC2A, MLC2V Chemically defined generation of human cardiomyocytes.
Skeletal Muscle IMDM, FBS, Glutamine, Penicillin-Streptomycin, nonessential amino acids, 2-mercaptoethanol, oleic acid, linoleic acid, iron sulfate, sodium ferric gluconate, Horse Serum, Y-27632, bFGF CD13, CD31, CD56, CD44, CD45, CD49b, CD146, MyHC Efficient derivation and inducible differentiation of expandable skeletal myogenic cells from human ES and patient-specific iPS cells.
Vascular Endothelial/ Smooth Muscle DMEM/F12, Glutamine, Neurobasal Media, N2, B27, CHIR99021, BIO, Y-27632, BMP4, VEGF, Forskolin, PDGF-BB, Activin A, Heparin CD31, CD144, vWF, I-CAM1, SMA, MyHC, VECAD, PECAM Generation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
Hepatocyte RPMI 1640, B27, Activin A, BMP4, bFGF, HGF, Oncostatin M FOXA2, SOX17, GATA4, HNF4-α, AFP, ALB Highly Efficient Generation of Human Hepatocyte–like Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Pancreatic β-cell DMEM/F12, IMDM, bovine serum albumin, N2, B27, ITS, BMP4, Activin A, FGF7, Noggin, bFGF, EGF, nicotinamide, Exendin-4, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) PDX1, FOXA2, SOX9, HNF1β, c-peptide, Insulin, Somatostatin Highly efficient differentiation of human ES cells and iPS cells into mature pancreatic insulin-producing cells.
Lung DMEM/F12, Glutamine, B27, N2, ascorbic acid, monothioglycerol, bovine serum albumin, Penicillin-Streptomycin, Y-27632, Dorsomorphin, SB431542, IWP2, CHIR99021, BMP4, bFGF, Activin A, FGF-10, FGF7EGF, all-all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) FOXA2, SOX2, NKX2.1, p63 Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

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