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1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride


Linear Formula:
NH2C(=NH)NHC(=NH)N(CH3)2 · HCl
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level






223-226 °C (lit.)

SMILES string




InChI key


Gene Information

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General description

1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin) is a strong base. It forms well defined salts and possessing excellent coordination capacity with transition metals, forming highly colored bidentate chelate complexes. Metformin (MET) exists in various forms: diprotonated (H2MET)2+ in strong acidic solution, monoprotonated (HMET)+ in weak acid, MET in neutral and deprotonated (MET)- in strong alkali solution. It is an oral antidiabetic drug. Pharmacokinetics of metformin has been studied. Determination of metformin in human plasma has been described by simple HPLC-UV method. Metformin is reported to increase plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in humans.


1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride is suitable biguanide agent used in a study to investigate its role in enhancing the secretions of plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. It may be used in the synthesis of the following:
  • bis(1,1-dimethylbiguanido)copper(II) octahydrate
  • bis(1,1-dimethylbiguanido)nickel(II)
  • 1,1-dimethylbiguanidium tetrabromothallate(III)


5 g in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Metformin is an antidiabetic agent that reduces blood glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity. Its metabolic effects, including the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, are mediated at least in part by activation of the LKB1-AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) pathway. Activation of this pathway also appears to be involved in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of metformin in cancer cell lines.


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Hazard Statements

Precautionary Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 4 Oral

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids



Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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  5. What solvents can be used to dissolve Product D150959, 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride?

    According to the chemicals encyclopedia published by the Royal Society of Chemistry, 1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride is expected to be soluble in water, or in 95% alcohol.

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Nobuyuki Yasuda et al.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 298(5), 779-784 (2002-11-07)
Metformin was reported to increase plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in humans. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: (1) metformin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme degrading GLP-1, and (2) metformin enhances GLP-1 secretion. To elucidate the
Bis (1, 1-dimethylbiguanido) nickel (II).
Zhu M, et al.
Acta Crystallographica Section E, Structure Reports Online, 58(6), 272-274 (2002)
1,1-Dimethylbiguanidium tetrabromothallate (III).
He Z, et al.
Acta Crystallographica Section E, Structure Reports Online, 58(11), m647-m649 (2002)
Bis (1,1-dimethylbiguanido) copper (II) octahydrate.
Zhu M, et al.
Acta Crystallographica Section E, Structure Reports Online, 58(5), 217-219 (2002)
Eric P Kusnadi et al.
The EMBO journal, 39(21), e105111-e105111 (2020-09-19)
Elevated ribosome biogenesis in oncogene-driven cancers is commonly targeted by DNA-damaging cytotoxic drugs. Our previous first-in-human trial of CX-5461, a novel, less genotoxic agent that specifically inhibits ribosome biogenesis via suppression of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription, revealed single-agent


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