Glutamine is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of both glutamate and GABA. Glutamine can be transported in and out of neurons and astrocytes utilizing different glutamine carriers. The neurotransmitter glutamate can be synthesized from glutamine by the action of
The development of genetic engineering and cloning has opened many possibilities of expression and isolation of heterologous proteins for research purposes. Considerable advances in technology have enabled expression and isolation of recombinant proteins in large scale.
Protein synthesis is a complex, multi-step process involving many enzymes as well as conformational alignment. However, the majority of antibiotics that block bacterial protein synthesis interfere with the processes at the 30S subunit or 50S subunit of the 70S bacterial
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) designates a class of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester of glycerophospholipids to produce a fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. It has become clear that some of these enzymes liberate arachidonic acid in mammalian cells for the
Dopamine-β-hydroxylase is located inside amine storage vesicles of norepinephrine neurons. Dopamine is actively transported from the cytoplasm into the vesicles. As the enzyme is a copper containing protein, its activity can be inhibited by copper chelating agents, such as diethyldithiocarbamate
The extracellular (ECM) microenvironment, defined by biochemical cues and physical cues, is a deciding factor in a wide range of cellular processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of phenotype-specific functions. For this reason, engineering the ECM microenvironment provides
Phase I biotransformation reactions introduce or expose functional groups on the drug with the goal of increasing the polarity of the compound. Although Phase I drug metabolism occurs in most tissues, the primary and first pass site of metabolism occurs
Oral drug delivery involves dissolution in the small intestine and absorption across the enterocyte barrier into the portal vein followed by subsequent delivery through the liver into the systemic circulation.
The 3xFLAG system is an improvement upon the original system by fusing 3 tandem FLAG® epitopes for a total of 22 amino acids. Detection of fusion proteins containing 3xFLAG is enhanced up to 200 times more than any other system.