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  • Gut bacteria of the cowpea beetle mediate its resistance to dichlorvos and susceptibility to Lippia adoensis essential oil.

Gut bacteria of the cowpea beetle mediate its resistance to dichlorvos and susceptibility to Lippia adoensis essential oil.

Scientific reports (2019-04-25)
Mazarin Akami, Nicolas Yanou Njintang, Olajire A Gbaye, Awawing A Andongma, Muhammad Adnan Rashid, Chang-Ying Niu, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine
ABSTRACT

Bacteria inhabiting the gut of insects provide many benefits to their hosts, such as aiding in food digestion, reproduction, and immunity, tissue homeostasis, adaptation to environment and resistance to pathogen and pesticides. The cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a serious cosmopolitan pest of pulses. This beetle has lent itself as a guinea pig for several ecological studies. It harbors a consortium of bacterial communities in its gut, but the evidence for their role in its physiology is fragmentary. In this work, we hypothesized that gut microbiota mediates C. maculatus resistance to dichlorvos (DDVP or O,O-dimethyl O-2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate) and represent the target of Lippia adoensis (Gambian Tea Bush) essential oil (EO). Symbiotic and aposymbiotic beetles were exposed to artificial cowpea seeds earlier treated with DDVP or EO. Adult mortality and changes in gut bacterial community composition and abundance were examined at F1 and F5 generations. The susceptibility of experimental beetles to DDVP was significantly affected by their symbiotic status. The adult mortality decreased across generations in DDVP treatments, and remained significantly higher in aposymbiotic groups. In EO treatments, the mortality was consistent irrespective of symbiotic status and experimental generations. When compared to DDVP and the Control, EO treatments had significantly lower bacterial richness and diversity, as well as lower abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. These results support our hypothesis and describe the responses of gut microbial communities to pesticide treatments. This could be of interest for developing new management strategies of this pest.