Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalates link to oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which exert cellular aging. However, modification effect of seasonal factor on the association of PAHs or phthalates exposure with relative telomere length (RTL) or mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has remained unclear. In this pilot study, 106 subjects were from an urban population (n = 1240) who lived in the two districts in Wuhan city, China. Participants completed physical examinations and provided 191 blood samples for RTL and mtDNA-CN analysis and 627 urine samples for monohydroxylated-PAHs (OH-PAHs) and phthalate metabolites measurements in the winter and summer seasons. We assessed the associations of urinary OH-PAHs or phthalates metabolites with RTL or mtDNA-CN by linear regression analysis and linear mixed-effect models. We found that urinary OH-PAHs were positively associated with mtDNA-CN at lag 2 day and 3-day moving average, but negatively related to RTL at lag 0, lag 1 and lag 2 day and 3-day moving average (p < 0.05). Urinary phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with mtDNA lag 0, lag 1 and lag 2 day and 3-day moving average, but positively related to RTL at lag 0 day (p < 0.05). Seasonal factor modified the association of urinary OH-PAHs with mtDNA-CN as well as urinary phthalate metabolites with RTL. In vitro experiment showed that under certain conditions, benzo[a]pyrene increased mtDNA-CN at 48 h and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate did RTL at 24 h in HepG2 cells. Seasonal variations in the metabolisms of PAHs or phthalates in human body may affect the relation of PAHs or phthalates exposure with cellular aging.