Merck

Smac-mimetics reduce numbers and viability of human osteoclasts.

Cell death discovery (2021-02-21)
Ingrid Nyhus Moen, Marita Westhrin, Erling Håland, Markus Haug, Unni Nonstad, Merisa Klaharn, Therese Standal, Kristian K Starheim
ABSTRACT

Elevated activity of bone-degrading osteoclasts (OC) contributes to pathological bone degradation in diseases such as multiple myeloma. Several proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF, contribute to osteoclastogenesis. The receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) regulates inflammation and cell death. It is recruited to the TNF-receptor complex, where it is ubiquitinated, and activates transcription factor NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Smac-mimetics (SM) is a group of drugs that block RIPK1 ubiquitination and shifts RIPK1 to activation of apoptosis or necroptosis. In this manuscript, we show that the two SM birinapant and LCL-161 reduced the number and viability of primary human OC, and induced TNF-dependent cell death in OC precursors (pre-OC). Birinapant was more cytotoxic than LCL-161 and induced predominantly apoptosis and to some degree necroptosis. Both inhibitors restrained osteoclastogenesis induced by myeloma patient bone-marrow aspirates. SM has gained attention as novel treatment strategies both for cancer and chronic inflammatory pathologies, but limited information has been available on interactions with primary human immune cells. As LCL-161 is in phase 2 clinical studies for multiple myeloma, we propose that SM might possess additional benefits in reducing bone degradation in myeloma patients. Taken together, we show that SM reduces human osteoclastogenesis, and that these compounds may represent promising drug candidates for pathological bone degradation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
RPMI-1640 Medium, With L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp-Lys-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Phe, ≥97% (HPLC)