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The Concentration and Probabilistic Health Risk of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Edible Mushrooms (Wild and Cultivated) Samples Collected from Different Cities of Iran.

Biological trace element research (2020-04-22)
Hadis Karami, Nabi Shariatifar, Shahrokh Nazmara, Mojtaba Moazzen, Babak Mahmoodi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
ABSTRACT

The present study was devoted to investigate the PTE concentrations including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper(Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic(As), and zinc (Zn) among six types of edible wild, 23 cultivated mushroom samples collected from Iran's market by the aid of an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Also, the related health risk assessment was established by the aid of the Monte Carlo simulation method (MSC). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were ranged 0.001-0.048 and 0.003-0.160 ppm, respectively. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in the ranges of 0.003-11. 5, 0.0008-5.89, 0.32-26.32, 9.15-110.08, 15.25-751.17, 0.16-2.24, 2.1-60.47, 1.21-24.22, 0.16-8.92, and 37.13-268.11 mg kg-1, respectively. According to findings, highest mean concentration of Cr in both types of mushrooms (cultivated and wild) was lower than recommended level by Codex Alimentarius/Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (CODEX/FAO/WHO) while the corresponding values for Hg (0.87 mg kg-1), As (1.39 mg kg-1), Ni (10.08 mg kg-1), Cu (36.65 mg kg-1), Cr (10.44 mg kg-1), Cd (0.589 mg kg-1), Fe (201.04 mg kg-1), Mn (10.30 mg kg-1), Zn (2266.43 mg kg-1), and Pb (3.81 mg kg-1) were higher than related standard levels. According to the health risk assessment, no concern regarding the non-carcinogenic risk due to the ingestion of PTEs via the consumption of the edible mushrooms, except Hg in wild mushrooms for children, was noted.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

Supelco
Periodic table mix 1 for ICP, TraceCERT®, 33 elements, 10 mg/L in nitric acid