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Effects of Metformin on Spontaneous Ca2+ Signals in Cultured Microglia Cells under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions.

International journal of molecular sciences (2021-09-11)
Silvija Jankeviciute, Natasa Svirskiene, Gytis Svirskis, Vilmante Borutaite
ABSTRACT

Microglial functioning depends on Ca2+ signaling. By using Ca2+ sensitive fluorescence dye, we studied how inhibition of mitochondrial respiration changed spontaneous Ca2+ signals in soma of microglial cells from 5-7-day-old rats grown under normoxic and mild-hypoxic conditions. In microglia under normoxic conditions, metformin or rotenone elevated the rate and the amplitude of Ca2+ signals 10-15 min after drug application. Addition of cyclosporin A, a blocker of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), antioxidant trolox, or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) blocker caffeine in the presence of rotenone reduced the elevated rate and the amplitude of the signals implying sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS), and involvement of mitochondrial mPTP together with IP3R. Microglial cells exposed to mild hypoxic conditions for 24 h showed elevated rate and increased amplitude of Ca2+ signals. Application of metformin or rotenone but not phenformin before mild hypoxia reduced this elevated rate. Thus, metformin and rotenone had the opposing fast action in normoxia after 10-15 min and the slow action during 24 h mild-hypoxia implying activation of different signaling pathways. The slow action of metformin through inhibition of complex I could stabilize Ca2+ homeostasis after mild hypoxia and could be important for reduction of ischemia-induced microglial activation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
(±)-6-Hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Caffeine, powder, ReagentPlus®
Sigma-Aldrich
Rotenone, ≥95%
Supelco
Metformin hydrochloride, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Phenformin hydrochloride, analytical standard