The study aimed to evaluate the supplementation of gilts with cow's milk naturally enriched with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive outcomes, and the serum biochemical and FA profile of swine females and their offspring. During 316 days, 30 gilts were distributed into three groups: (1) Control, fed a basal diet + milk from cows without oil; (2) n-3, fed a basal diet + milk from cows fed a diet enriched with linseed oil; (3) n-6, fed a basal diet + milk from cows fed a diet enriched with soybean oil. The gilts receiving the diets containing PUFA had higher serum urea and very-low-density lipoprotein levels and lower serum total protein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared to the Control group. Females supplemented with n-3 presented higher serum palmitic acid and γ-linolenic acid levels than those fed n-6. Piglets from the Control group were heavier at birth than those from females supplemented with enriched milk. The piglets from females receiving enriched milk had 140 g higher body weight from 1 to 21 days old compared to the Control group, and greater average daily weight gain from 7 to 14 days old. The serum eicosapentaenoic acid level of piglets fed n-3 was 69% higher than those fed n-6, which reduced the AA/EPA ratio. Gilts supplemented with PUFA-enriched cow's milk showed changes in their serum palmitic and γ-linolenic acid levels, in addition to improved performance, EPA concentration and consequently reduced AA/EPA ratio in their piglets, demonstrating beneficial results for their progeny.