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Distinct Responsiveness of Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Immunotherapy of Tumors with Different Mechanisms of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Downregulation.

Cancers (2021-07-03)
Adrianna Piatakova, Ingrid Polakova, Jana Smahelova, Shweta Dilip Johari, Jaroslav Nunvar, Michal Smahel
ABSTRACT

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) plentifully infiltrate the tumor microenvironment (TME), but their role in anti-tumor immunity is controversial. Depending on the acquired polarization, they can either support tumor growth or participate in the elimination of neoplastic cells. In this study, we analyzed the TME by RNA-seq and flow cytometry and examined TAMs after ex vivo activation. Tumors with normal and either reversibly or irreversibly decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules were induced with TC-1, TC-1/A9, and TC-1/dB2m cells, respectively. We found that combined immunotherapy (IT), composed of DNA immunization and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) ODN1826, evoked immune reactions in the TME of TC-1- and TC-1/A9-induced tumors, while the TME of TC-1/dB2m tumors was mostly immunologically unresponsive. TAMs infiltrated both tumor types with MHC-I downregulation, but only TAMs from TC-1/A9 tumors acquired the M1 phenotype upon IT and were cytotoxic in in vitro assay. The anti-tumor effect of combined IT was markedly enhanced by a blockade of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), but only against TC-1/A9 tumors. Overall, TAMs from tumors with irreversible MHC-I downregulation were resistant to the stimulation of cytotoxic activity. These data suggest the dissimilarity of TAMs from different tumor types, which should be considered when utilizing TAMs in cancer IT.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
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Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, ≥98% (TLC), powder
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RPMI-1640 Medium, With L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
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Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium - high glucose, With 4500 mg/L glucose, L-glutamine, sodium pyruvate, and sodium bicarbonate, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture