Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) plentifully infiltrate the tumor microenvironment (TME), but their role in anti-tumor immunity is controversial. Depending on the acquired polarization, they can either support tumor growth or participate in the elimination of neoplastic cells. In this study, we analyzed the TME by RNA-seq and flow cytometry and examined TAMs after ex vivo activation. Tumors with normal and either reversibly or irreversibly decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules were induced with TC-1, TC-1/A9, and TC-1/dB2m cells, respectively. We found that combined immunotherapy (IT), composed of DNA immunization and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) ODN1826, evoked immune reactions in the TME of TC-1- and TC-1/A9-induced tumors, while the TME of TC-1/dB2m tumors was mostly immunologically unresponsive. TAMs infiltrated both tumor types with MHC-I downregulation, but only TAMs from TC-1/A9 tumors acquired the M1 phenotype upon IT and were cytotoxic in in vitro assay. The anti-tumor effect of combined IT was markedly enhanced by a blockade of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), but only against TC-1/A9 tumors. Overall, TAMs from tumors with irreversible MHC-I downregulation were resistant to the stimulation of cytotoxic activity. These data suggest the dissimilarity of TAMs from different tumor types, which should be considered when utilizing TAMs in cancer IT.