Merck
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibition in Planorbarius corneus exposed to binary mixtures of azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos.

Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibition in Planorbarius corneus exposed to binary mixtures of azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2013-01-08)
Luis Claudio Cacciatore, Noemí Verrengia Guerrero, Adriana Cristina Cochón
ABSTRACT

Though pesticide mixtures are commonly encountered in fresh water systems, the knowledge of their effects on non-target aquatic species is scarce. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the in vivo inhibition of the freshwater gastropod snail Planorbarius corneus cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterases (CES) activities by the organophosphorus pesticides azinphos-methyl (AZM) and chlorpyrifos (CPF). To this end, snails were exposed for 48 h to different concentrations of AZM and CPF in single-chemical and binary-mixture studies, and ChE and CES activities were measured in the whole soft body tissues and hemolymph. ChE activity was measured with acetylthiocholine as substrate and CES activity was measured with four substrates: p-nitrophenyl acetate, p-nitrophenyl butyrate, 1- and 2-naphthyl acetate. Single-chemical experiments showed that CPF was a more potent inhibitor of ChE activity than AZM (350 and 27 times for the whole soft tissue and hemolymph, respectively). CES were 15 times more sensitive than ChE when the activities were measured in the whole soft tissue of the animals exposed to AZM. Based on a default assumption of concentration addition, P. corneus snails were exposed to mixtures of AZM+CPF designed to yield predicted soft tissue ChE inhibitions of 31% (mixture 1), 50% (mixture 2) and 61% (mixture 3). Results showed that ChE inhibition produced by mixture 1 followed a model of concentration addition. In contrast, the other mixtures showed synergism, both in whole soft tissue and hemolymph. In addition, results obtained when the snails were exposed sequentially to the pesticides showed that the sequence AZM/CPF produced at 48 h a higher ChE inhibition than the sequence CPF/CPF. A range of metabolic pathways and responses associated with bioactivation or detoxification may play important roles in organophosphorus interactions. In particular, the data presented in the present study indicate that CES enzymes would be important factors in determining the effects of the mixtures of OPs on P. corneus ChE activity.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum, lyophilized powder, ≥900 units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum, lyophilized powder, ≥10 units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum, lyophilized powder, ≥500 units/mg protein
Supelco
Chlorpyrifos, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Supelco
Chlorpyrifos, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyrylcholinesterase human, vial of ≥4 units