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Dichlorvos exposure results in activation induced apoptotic cell death in primary rat microglia.

Chemical research in toxicology (2012-07-24)
Aditya Sunkaria, Willayat Yousuf Wani, Deep Raj Sharma, Kiran Dip Gill

Dichlorvos [2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate] is one of the most common in-use organophosphate (OP) in developing nations. Previous studies from our lab have shown chronic Dichlorvos exposure leads to neuronal cell death in rats. However, the extent of damage caused by Dichlorvos to other cells of the central nervous system (CNS) is still not clear. Microglial cells are the primary threat sensors of CNS which become activated in many pathological conditions. Activation of microglial cells results in reactive microgliosis, manifested by increased cellular damage in the affected regions. Using rat primary microglial cultures, here we show that Dichlorvos exposure can activate and induce apoptotic cell death in microglia. We observed significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules like nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-1β when microglia were treated with Dichlorvos (10 μM). Significant up-regulation of CD11b, microglial specific activation marker, was also observed after 24 h of Dichlorvos treatment. The activated microglial cells eventually undergo cell death after 48 h of Dichlorvos treatment. The DNA fragmentation pattern of Dichlorvos treated microglia along with increased expression of Bax in mitochondria, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and caspase-3 activation led us to assume that microglia were undergoing apoptosis. Thus, the present study showed that Dichlorvos can induce microglial activation and ultimately apoptotic cell death. These findings gave new perspective to the current knowledge of Dichlorvos (OPs) mediated CNS damage and presents microglial activation as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the OP induced neuronal damage.

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Product Description

Dichlorvos, PESTANAL®, analytical standard