Dichlorvos (DDVP) is an organophosphate compound that causes neurotoxicity. Apoptosis plays an important role in neurotoxic cell death in the brain. The aim of this study was to examine caspase 1, caspase-3 and also cell apoptosis related genes as p53, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-alpha expressions in hippocampus, cerebellum, cortex, and to estimate total hippocampal neuron number in DDVP treated rats. Ten female albino rats were divided into control (n:5) and dose (n:5) groups. In dose group, single dose of DDVP (25 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via oral gavage. A week later, brains were removed and total neuron number was estimated in the left hippocampus using by optical fractionator method. The right part of the brain was used for gene expression analysis. In dose group, total hippocampal neuron number was significantly decreased compared to control group (p = 0.008). Caspase 1 and TNF-alpha gene expression were increased in all brain tissues and p53 gene expression was decreased in only hippocampus tissue in dose group. Short-term exposure to dichlorvos leads to neuronal loss in hippocampus and TNF-alpha rapidly and potently induces apoptosis and also several caspases as possible participants in the apoptotic cascade.