Rohu gill cell line (LRG) was established from gill tissue of Indian major carp (Labeo rohita), a freshwater fish cultivated in India. The cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10 % foetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been sub-cultured more than 85 passages over a period of 2 years. The LRG cell line consists of both epithelial and fibroblastic-like cells. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 22 to 32 °C, the optimum temperature being 28 °C. The growth rate of gill cells increased as the FBS proportion increased from 2 to 20 % at 28 °C. The plating efficiency was also high (34.37 %). The viability of the LRG cell line was 70-80 % after 6 months of storage in liquid nitrogen. The karyotype analysis revealed a diploid count of 50 chromosomes. The gill cells of rohu were successfully transfected with pEGFP-N1. Amplification of mitochondrial Cox1 gene using primers specific to L. rohita confirmed the origin of this cell line from L. rohita. The cytotoxicity of malathion was assessed in LRG cell line using multiple endpoints such as 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Acute toxicity assay on fish was conducted by exposing L. rohita for 96 h to malathion under static conditions. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with r (2) = 0.946-0.990 for all combinations between endpoints employed. Linear correlations between each in vitro effective concentration 50 and the in vivo lethal concentration 50 data were highly significant.