High-mannose-type oligosaccharides have been shown to play important roles in protein quality control. Several intracellular proteins, such as lectins, chaperones and glycan-processing enzymes, are involved in this process. These include calnexin/calreticulin, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT), cargo receptors (such as VIP36 and ERGIC-53), mannosidase-like proteins (e.g. EDEM and Htm1p) and ubiquitin ligase (Fbs). They are thought to recognize high-mannose-type glycans with subtly different structures, although the precise specificities are yet to be clarified. In order to gain a clear understanding of these protein-carbohydrate interactions, comprehensive synthesis of high-mannose-type glycans was conducted. In addition, two approaches to the synthesis of artificial glycoproteins with homogeneous oligosaccharides were investigated. Furthermore, a novel substrate of UGGT was discovered.