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Resistance to malathion and deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from western Venezuela.

Journal of medical entomology (2013-11-05)
Leslie C Alvarez, Gustavo Ponce, Milagros Oviedo, Beatriz Lopez, Adriana E Flores
ABSTRACT

Resistance to the insecticides deltamethrin and malathion and the enzymes associated with metabolic resistance mechanisms were determined in four field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from western Venezuela during 2008 and 2010 using the bottle assay and the microplate biochemical techniques. For deltamethrin, mortality rates after 1 h exposure and after a 24-h recovery period were determined to calculate the 50% knock-downconcentration (KC50) and the lethal concentration (LC50), respectively. For malathion, mortality was recorded at 24 h to determine the LC50. For deltamethrin, resistance ratios of knock-down resistance and postrecovery were determined by calculating the RRKC50 and RRLC50, comparing the KC50 and LC50 values of the field populations and those of the susceptible New Orleans strain. Knock-down resistance to deltamethrin was moderate in the majority of the populations in 2008 (RRKC50 values were between 5- and 10-fold), and only one population showed high resistance in 2010 (RRKC50 > 10-fold). Moderate and high postrecovery resistance to deltamethrin was observed in the majority of the populations for 2008 and 2010, respectively. There was significantly increased expression of glutathione-S-tranferases and mixed-function oxidases. All populations showed low resistance to malathion in 2008 and 2010 with significantly higher levels of alpha-esterases for 2008 and 2010 and beta-esterases for 2008.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Malathion, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Malathion solution, 100 μg/mL in cyclohexane, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Malathion, certified reference material, TraceCERT®