Inappropriate use of toxic chemicals is common in developing countries, where it leads to excessive exposure and high risks of unintentional poisoning. Risks are particularly high with the pesticides used in agriculture, poor rural populations live and work in close proximity to these compounds and often store these compounds in and around their homes. It is estimated that most of the death from pesticide poisoning occur in developing countries. Organophosphate insecticides have been extensively used in agriculture in developing countries. Dichlorvos is a synthetic insecticide and belongs to a family of chemically related organophosphate pesticides (OP). Toxicity of dichlorvos has been documented in accidental human poisoning, epidemiological studies, and animal models. In this review, molecular mechanisms of dichlorvos neurotoxicity have been described. Usage, biotransformation, environmental levels, general population and occupational exposure, effects on cell signaling receptors, mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress and gene expression of dichlorvos have been reviewed. Assessment of acute and chronic exposures as well as neurotoxicity risk for lifetime exposures to dichlorvos have also been considered. In addition special emphasis has been given to describe, the role of dichlorvos in the chronic neurotoxicity and its molecular targets that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration.