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High-glucose-induced CARM1 expression regulates apoptosis of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via histone 3 arginine 17 dimethylation: role in diabetic retinopathy.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics (2014-07-30)
Dong-il Kim, Min-jung Park, Seul-ki Lim, Joo-hee Choi, Jong-choon Kim, Ho-jae Han, Tapas K Kundu, Jae-il Park, Kyung-chul Yoon, Sang-woo Park, Jong-sung Park, Young-ran Heo, Soo-hyun Park
ABSTRACT

Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is considered to be involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Histone arginine methylation catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has emerged as an important histone modification involved in gene regulation. However, the role of PRMTs in diabetic retinopathy has not been elucidated. Here, we found that expression of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1; also known as PRMT4) was increased in the high-glucose treated human RPE cell line ARPE-19 and in the RPE layer of streptozotocin-treated rats. In addition, high-glucose induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. To determine the function of CARM1 on RPE cell apoptosis, we performed gain- and loss-of-function studies. CARM1 overexpression increased apoptosis of RPE cells. In contrast, silencing of CARM1 expression by siRNA and pharmacological inhibition of CARM1 activity abolished high-glucose-induced RPE cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of histone 3 arginine 17 (H3R17) asymmetric dimethylation attenuates both CARM1- and high-glucose-induced apoptosis in RPE cells. Together, these results show that high-glucose-induced CARM1 expression increases RPE cell apoptosis via H3R17 asymmetric dimethylation. Strategies to reduce CARM1 expression or enzymatic activity could be used to prevent apoptosis of RPE cells in the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

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