Understanding nanoparticle-protein interactions is a crucial issue in the development of targeted nanomaterial delivery. Besides unraveling the composition of the nanoparticle's protein coronas, distinct proteins thereof could control nanoparticle uptake into specific cell types. Here we differentially analyzed the protein corona composition on four polymeric differently functionalized nanoparticles by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Next, we correlated the relative abundance of identified proteins in the corona with enhanced or decreased cellular uptake of nanoparticles into human cancer and bone marrow stem cells to identify key candidates. Finally, we verified these candidate proteins by artificially decorating nanoparticles with individual proteins showing that nanoparticles precoated with the apolipoproteins ApoA4 or ApoC3 significantly decreased the cellular uptake, whereas precoating with ApoH increased the cellular uptake.