Peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus has been used:
- for the stimulation of lymphocytes: peptidoglycan activates the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), present in mammalian cells. It works as an antagonist of Poly (I:C)
- for g-type lysozyme stimulation by intraperitoneally inoculating it into sole specimens
- in phosphate buffer saline and injected into Labeo rohita fingerlings, to study its effect on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD-2) gene expression
The cell wall of gram positive bacteria is largely made up of peptidoglycan. It is composed of polysaccharide chains interlinked by peptide bridges. This peptidoglycan gives a certain rigidity to the cell wall and gives the cell mechanical strength. It is a surface molecule which is known to stimulate immune reactions including cytokine production to fever.
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Major component of the cell wall in gram positive organisms. Consists of a glycan backbone with alternating β 1-4 linked residues of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and muramic acid. The immunological activities of bacterial peptidoglycans; Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications; Antibody response to peptidoglycan during staphylococcal infections