Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPLC3/LC3) was first identified in rat as a protein that co-purifies with microtubule-associated protein 1A and 1B from rat brain. LC3 exists in cells in two forms. One is cytoplasmic, LC3-I (18 kDa) and the other, LC3-II (16 kDa) is associated with the autophagosome membrane. LC3-I is modified to a membrane-bound form, LC3-II (a LC3-phospholipid conjugate), by mammalian autophagy related protein 7 (Atg7) and Atg3, which are E1- and E2-like enzymes, respectively. Three human orthologs of the rat LC3, named MAP1LC3A/LC3A, MAP1LC3B/LC3B, and MAP1LC3C/ LC3C, were identified. The human proteins exhibit two forms representing the cytosolic (type I) and the membrane associated (type II) forms. The three human isoforms show different expression patterns in human tissues.
The gene MAP1LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 β) is a homolog of ATG8 gene, an autophagy-related gene in yeast. The encoded protein is called pro-MAP1LC3B, a pro-form that is cleaved by ATG4 to produce a cytosolic form called MAP1LC3B-I.
By immunoblotting, the antibody recognizes human, rat, and mouse LC3B-I and LC3B-II (~18 kDa and ~16 kDa, respectively).
synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 2-15 of human LC3B, conjugated to KLH via a C-terminal cysteine residue. The corresponding sequence differs by one amino acid in rat and mouse.
Anti-LC3B antibody produced in rabbit has been used in western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPLC3/LC3) expression level correlates with the extent of autophagosome formation. LC3B can be used as an autophagosomal marker.
MAP1LC3B-I (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 β-I) conjugates with MAP1LC3B-II before being inserted into both inner and outer membranes of the growing autophagic vesicle during autophagy. The cellular distribution and processing of MAP1LC3B facilitates monitoring of autophagy. Cells that lack MAP1LC3B are found to be defective in the formation of autophagic vesicles, with altered phenotypes associated with the role of autophagy in energy homeostasis and removal of protein aggregates. It can serve as an autophagic marker.
Solution in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4, containing 15 mM sodium azide.
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