Thyrotropin/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) helps to regulate thyroid function. In children, TSH plays a vital role in normal cognition and neurodevelopment. Circulating TSH is capable of binding to cell surface receptors in the thyroid gland. This hormone induces thyroid to produce thyroglobulin and the thyroid hormones. TSH can also promote the uptake of iodine (131I) in individuals with thyroid cancer. It can also enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and angiogenesis in thyroid cancer cell lines.
Two-chain glycoprotein hormone. The α-chain is not active, biological specificity attributed rather to the β-chain. Activates adenylate cyclase in the thyroid gland, stimulating iodine uptake, thyroxine synthesis and release. Goitrogenic.