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  • Signal Integration of IFN-I and IFN-II With TLR4 Involves Sequential Recruitment of STAT1-Complexes and NFκB to Enhance Pro-inflammatory Transcription.

Signal Integration of IFN-I and IFN-II With TLR4 Involves Sequential Recruitment of STAT1-Complexes and NFκB to Enhance Pro-inflammatory Transcription.

Frontiers in immunology (2019-06-25)
Anna Piaszyk-Borychowska, Lajos Széles, Attila Csermely, Hsin-Chien Chiang, Joanna Wesoły, Chien-Kuo Lee, Laszlo Nagy, Hans A R Bluyssen
RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the blood vessels, characterized by atherosclerotic lesion formation. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC), macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Interferon (IFN)α, IFNγ, and Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 activate pro-inflammatory gene expression and are pro-atherogenic. Gene expression regulation of many pro-inflammatory genes has shown to rely on Signal Integration (SI) between IFNs and TLR4 through combinatorial actions of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)1 complexes ISGF3 and γ-activated factor (GAF), and Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB). Thus, IFN pre-treatment ("priming") followed by LPS stimulation leads to enhanced transcriptional responses as compared to the individual stimuli. To characterize the mechanism of priming-induced IFNα + LPS- and IFNγ + LPS-dependent SI in vascular cells as compared to immune cells, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of mouse VSMC, MΦ, and DC in response to IFNα, IFNγ, and/or LPS. Thus, we identified IFNα + LPS or IFNγ + LPS induced genes commonly expressed in these cell types that bound STAT1 and p65 at comparable γ-activated sequence (GAS), Interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE), or NFκB sites in promoter proximal and distal regions. Comparison of the relatively high number of overlapping ISRE sites in these genes unraveled a novel role of ISGF3 and possibly STAT1/IRF9 in IFNγ responses. In addition, similar STAT1-p65 co-binding modes were detected for IFNα + LPS and IFNγ + LPS up-regulated genes, which involved recruitment of STAT1 complexes preceding p65 to closely located GAS/NFκB or ISRE/NFκB composite sites already upon IFNα or IFNγ treatment. This STAT1-p65 co-binding significantly increased after subsequent LPS exposure and correlated with histone acetylation, PolII recruitment, and amplified target gene transcription in a STAT1-p65 co-bound dependent manner. Thus, co-binding of STAT1-containing transcription factor complexes and NFκB, activated by IFN-I or IFN-II together with LPS, provides a platform for robust transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory genes. Moreover, our data offer an explanation for the comparable effects of IFNα or IFNγ priming on TLR4-induced activation in vascular and immune cells, with important implications in atherosclerosis.

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