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  • Progesterone induced Warburg effect in HEK293 cells is associated with post-translational modifications and proteasomal degradation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1.

Progesterone induced Warburg effect in HEK293 cells is associated with post-translational modifications and proteasomal degradation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1.

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology (2019-05-09)
Mohammad Golam Sabbir
RESUMO

Progesterone (P4) is a major steroid hormone that has important effects on metabolism. The progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is a non-canonical P4 binding protein. The biological functions affected by PGRMC1 include cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis and metabolism, iron homeostasis and heme trafficking, autophagy, regulation of cell cycle and proliferation, cell migration and invasion. PGRMC1 has been an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in cancer and neurodegenerative disorders due to its biological role in promoting cell survival. P4 has been used in a number of clinical applications and is considered neuroprotective. The involvement of PGRMC1 in P4-mediated regulation of cellular glucose metabolism is not well studied. PGRMC1 is a 21 kDa protein but complex post-translational modifications (PTMs) lead to the existence of several high molecular mass proteins whose molecular function, intracellular distribution, and physiological relevancies are not fully known. Therefore, in this study, P4-PGRMC1-mediated cellular glucose metabolism and PTMs of PGRMC1 were studied using wild-type and CRISPR/Cas9 mediated PGRMC1 knockout (KO) human embryonic kidney-derived (HEK293) cell lines. A 70 kDa (p70) and 100 kDa (p100) PGRMC1 proteins were identified that are predominantly associated with endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondria and nuclear fractions in the cells, respectively. Phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation of native PGRMC1 under serum starvation were identified which provided an explanation for the higher molecular masses. This study indicates that P4-PGRMC1 signaling caused a rapid increase in glycolysis in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) and a corresponding decrease in cellular respiration, known as the Warburg effect. Further, it was demonstrated that the P4-induced increase in glycolysis is associated with rapid proteasomal degradation of the p70 and reduction of the nuclear p100 protein level. P4 treatment also caused significant alteration in the dynamics of PGRMC1 PTMs and its association with potential interacting proteins. Overall, this study provides a hitherto unknown aspect of P4-PGRMC1 mediated signaling that changes basic cellular metabolism in HEK293 cells.

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