Direct stimulation of NADP+ synthesis through Akt-mediated phosphorylation of NAD kinase.

Science (New York, N.Y.) (2019-03-09)
Gerta Hoxhaj, Issam Ben-Sahra, Sophie E Lockwood, Rebecca C Timson, Vanessa Byles, Graham T Henning, Peng Gao, Laura M Selfors, John M Asara, Brendan D Manning

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) is essential for producing NADPH, the primary cofactor for reductive metabolism. We find that growth factor signaling through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway induces acute synthesis of NADP+ and NADPH. Akt phosphorylates NAD kinase (NADK), the sole cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NADP+ from NAD+ (the oxidized form of NADH), on three serine residues (Ser44, Ser46, and Ser48) within an amino-terminal domain. This phosphorylation stimulates NADK activity both in cells and directly in vitro, thereby increasing NADP+ production. A rare isoform of NADK (isoform 3) lacking this regulatory region exhibits constitutively increased activity. These data indicate that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of NADK stimulates its activity to increase NADP+ production through relief of an autoinhibitory function inherent to its amino terminus.