Antibiotic G-418 is a new aminoglycoside produced as the major component by a new species of Micromonospora, M. rhodorangea NRRL 5326. The antibiotic is prepared by submerged fermentation in a soybean-dextrin medium. Antibiotic G-418 is adsorbed on a cationic-exchange resin and separated from other impurities by passing it down a Dowex (1 x 2) resin column. The antibiotic, which contains 2-deoxystreptamine, has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and is highly active against protozoa, amoebae, tapeworm, and pinworm infections in mice. This report describes the taxonomy of the organism, and fermentation, isolation, and preliminary characterization of antibiotic G-418.