Recently, Rodgersia podophylla has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms about its anti-inflammatory activity. We elucidated the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of leaves extracts from Rodgersia podophylla (RP-L) in RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced NO was measured by Griess and mRNA of pro-inflammatory mediators was analyzed by RT-PCR. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. The protein level was analyzed by Western blot. RP-L significantly inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. RP-L increased HO-1 expression in RAW264.7 cells, and the inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP reduced the inhibitory effect of RP-L against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of p38, ROS and GSK3β attenuated RP-L-mediated HO-1 expression. Inhibition of ROS inhibited p38 phosphorylation and GSK3β expression induced by RP-L. In addition, inhibition of GSK3β blocked RP-L-mediated p38 phosphorylation. RP-L induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and inhibition of p38, ROS and GSK3β abolished RP-L-mediated nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Furthermore, RP-L blocked LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α and nuclear accumulation of p65. RP-L also attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. In GC/MS analysis of RP-L, pyrogallol was detected as bioactive compound for anti-inflammatory activity of RP-L. Pyrogallol was observed to activate HO-1 expression through ROS/GSK3β/p38/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Our results suggest that RP-L exerts potential anti-inflammatory activity by activating ROS/GSK3β/p38/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling in RAW264.7 cells. These findings suggest that RP-L may have great potential for the development of anti-inflammatory drug.