An acylated flavonol glycoside, helichrysoside, at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day per os for 14 days, improved the glucose tolerance in mice without affecting the food intake, visceral fat weight, liver weight, and other plasma parameters. In this study, using hepatoblastoma-derived HepG2 cells, helichrysoside, trans-tiliroside, and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside enhanced glucose consumption from the medium, but their aglycones and p-coumaric acid did not show this activity. In addition, several acylated flavonol glycosides were synthesized to clarify the structural requirements for lipid metabolism using HepG2 cells. The results showed that helichrysoside and related analogs significantly inhibited triglyceride (TG) accumulation in these cells. The inhibition by helichrysoside was more potent than that by other acylated flavonol glycosides, related flavonol glycosides, and organic acids. As for the TG metabolism-promoting activity in high glucose-pretreated HepG2 cells, helichrysoside, related analogs, and their aglycones were found to significantly reduce the TG contents in HepG2 cells. However, the desacyl flavonol glycosides and organic acids derived from the acyl groups did not exhibit an inhibitory impact on the TG contents in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that the existence of the acyl moiety at the 6'' position in the D-glucopyranosyl part is essential for glucose and lipid metabolism-promoting activities.