TENET 2.0: Identification of key transcriptional regulators and enhancers in lung adenocarcinoma.

PLoS genetics (2020-09-15)
Daniel J Mullen, Chunli Yan, Diane S Kang, Beiyun Zhou, Zea Borok, Crystal N Marconett, Peggy J Farnham, Ite A Offringa, Suhn Kyong Rhie

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death and lung adenocarcinoma is its most common subtype. Although genetic alterations have been identified as drivers in subsets of lung adenocarcinoma, they do not fully explain tumor development. Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of tumors. To identify epigenetic alterations driving lung adenocarcinoma, we used an improved version of the Tracing Enhancer Networks using Epigenetic Traits method (TENET 2.0) in primary normal lung and lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found over 32,000 enhancers that appear differentially activated between normal lung and lung adenocarcinoma. Among the identified transcriptional regulators inactivated in lung adenocarcinoma vs. normal lung, NKX2-1 was linked to a large number of silenced enhancers. Among the activated transcriptional regulators identified, CENPA, FOXM1, and MYBL2 were linked to numerous cancer-specific enhancers. High expression of CENPA, FOXM1, and MYBL2 is particularly observed in a subgroup of lung adenocarcinomas and is associated with poor patient survival. Notably, CENPA, FOXM1, and MYBL2 are also key regulators of cancer-specific enhancers in breast adenocarcinoma of the basal subtype, but they are associated with distinct sets of activated enhancers. We identified individual lung adenocarcinoma enhancers linked to CENPA, FOXM1, or MYBL2 that were associated with poor patient survival. Knockdown experiments of FOXM1 and MYBL2 suggest that these factors regulate genes involved in controlling cell cycle progression and cell division. For example, we found that expression of TK1, a potential target gene of a MYBL2-linked enhancer, is associated with poor patient survival. Identification and characterization of key transcriptional regulators and associated enhancers in lung adenocarcinoma provides important insights into the deregulation of lung adenocarcinoma epigenomes, highlighting novel potential targets for clinical intervention.

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Gentamicin solution, 10 mg/mL in deionized water, liquid, 0.1 μm filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Amphotericin B from Streptomyces sp., BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ~80% (HPLC)