Generation of oligodendrocytes is a sophisticated multistep process, the mechanistic underpinnings of which are not fully understood and demand further investigation. To systematically profile proteome dynamics during human embryonic stem cell differentiation into oligodendrocytes, we applied in-depth quantitative proteomics at different developmental stages and monitored changes in protein abundance using a multiplexed tandem mass tag-based proteomics approach. Our proteome data provided a comprehensive protein expression profile that highlighted specific expression clusters based on the protein abundances over the course of human oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. We identified the eminence of the planar cell polarity signalling and autophagy (particularly macroautophagy) in the progression of oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation-the cooperation of which is assisted by 106 and 77 proteins, respectively, that showed significant expression changes in this differentiation process. Furthermore, differentially expressed protein analysis of the proteome profile of oligodendrocyte lineage cells revealed 378 proteins that were specifically upregulated only in 1 differentiation stage. In addition, comparative pairwise analysis of differentiation stages demonstrated that abundances of 352 proteins differentially changed between consecutive differentiation time points. Our study provides a comprehensive systematic proteomics profile of oligodendrocyte lineage cells that can serve as a resource for identifying novel biomarkers from these cells and for indicating numerous proteins that may contribute to regulating the development of myelinating oligodendrocytes and other cells of oligodendrocyte lineage. We showed the importance of planar cell polarity signalling in oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation and revealed the autophagy-related proteins that participate in oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation.