A whole-genome worldwide molecular epidemiology approach for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

Heliyon (2020-10-22)
Etienne Loire, Abdoulkarim Issa Ibrahim, Lucía Manso-Silván, Louis Lignereux, François Thiaucourt

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is an infectious and contagious disease affecting goats and wildlife ruminants, mostly in Africa and Asia. It is caused by a mycoplasma, Mycoplasma capricolum susbp. capripneumoniae, which is very fastidious. This may be the reason why there are few reports of its isolation and characterization. This study describes the development of a whole genome typing strategy based on sequencing reads assemblies on a reference genome (Abomsa, GenBank accession LM995445) and extraction of informative single nucleotide polymorphism. FASTA sequences inferred from the variant calling files were used to establish a comprehensive phylogenetic tree based on 2880 SNPs. This tree included a total of 34 strains originating from all the regions where CCPP has been detected, as well as strains isolated from wildlife. A recent isolate from West-Niger was positioned closely to another 1995 East-Niger isolate, an indication that CCPP may be extending westward in Africa. Six 2013 Tanzanian isolates had identical sequences in spite of diverse geographical origins. This could be explained by the clonal expansion of a virulent strain at that time in East Africa. Although all strains isolated from wildlife in the Middle East were in the same phylogenetic group, this may not sign an adaptation to new hosts. The most probable explanation for wildlife contamination remains the contact with goats. This strategy will easily accommodate new data in the near future and should become a gold-standard high-resolution typing procedure for the surveillance of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

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Amphotericin B solubilized, powder, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture