Upfront surgery is the current standard for resectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) despite high treatment failure with this approach. We sought to examine the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as an alternative strategy for this population. The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients with resectable ICC undergoing curative-intent surgery (2006-2014). Utilization trends were examined and survival estimates between NAC and upfront surgery were compared; propensity score-matched models were used to examine the association of NAC with overall survival (OS) for all patients and risk-stratified cohorts. Models accounted for clustering within hospitals, and results represent findings from a complete-case analysis. Among 881 patients with ICC, 8.3% received NAC, with no changes over time (Cochran-Armitage p = 0.7). Median follow-up was 50.9 months, with no difference in unadjusted survival with NAC versus upfront surgery (median OS 51.8 vs. 35.6 months, and 5-year OS rates of 38.2% vs. 36.6%; log rank p = 0.51), and no survival benefit in the propensity score-matched analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.78, 95% CI 0.54-1.11; p = 0.16). However, for patients with stage II-III disease, NAC was associated with a trend towards improved survival (median OS of 47.6 months vs. 25.9 months, and 5-year OS rates of 34% vs. 25.7%; log-rank p = 0.10) and a statistically significant survival benefit in the propensity score-matched analysis. (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91; p = 0.02). NAC is associated with improved OS over upfront surgery in patients with resectable ICC and high-risk of treatment failure. These data support the need for prospective studies to examine NAC as an alternative strategy to improve OS in this population.