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Grainyhead-Like 3 Influences Migration and Invasion of Urothelial Carcinoma Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences (2021-04-04)
Felix Wezel, Johannes Lustig, Anca Azoitei, Junnan Liu, Sabine Meessen, Gregoire Najjar, Viktor Zehe, Philipp Faustmann, Friedemann Zengerling, Axel John, Thomas Martini, Christian Bolenz, Cagatay Günes
ABSTRACT

Invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (UCB) characteristically show a loss of differentiation markers. The transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) plays an important role in the development and differentiation of normal urothelium. The contribution to UCB progression is still elusive. Differential expression of GRHL3 was assessed in normal human urothelium and in non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer cell lines. The contribution of GRHL3 to cell proliferation, viability and invasion in UCB cell lines was determined by gain- and loss-of-function assays in vitro and in an organ culture model using de-epithelialized porcine bladders. GRHL3 expression was detectable in normal human urothelial cells and showed significantly higher mRNA and protein levels in well-differentiated, non-invasive RT4 urothelial carcinoma cells compared to moderately differentiated RT112 cells. GRHL3 expression was absent in anaplastic and invasive T24 cells. Ectopic de novo expression of GRHL3 in T24 cells significantly impaired their migration and invasion properties in vitro and in organ culture. Its downregulation improved the invasive capacity of RT4 cells. The results indicate that GRHL3 may play a role in progression and metastasis in UCB. In addition, this work demonstrates that de-epithelialized porcine bladder organ culture can be a useful, standardized tool to assess the invasive capacity of cancer cells.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dispase® II, protease
Sigma-Aldrich
LB Broth (Miller), Liquid microbial growth medium