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  • Fin56-induced ferroptosis is supported by autophagy-mediated GPX4 degradation and functions synergistically with mTOR inhibition to kill bladder cancer cells.

Fin56-induced ferroptosis is supported by autophagy-mediated GPX4 degradation and functions synergistically with mTOR inhibition to kill bladder cancer cells.

Cell death & disease (2021-10-31)
Yadong Sun, Niklas Berleth, Wenxian Wu, David Schlütermann, Jana Deitersen, Fabian Stuhldreier, Lena Berning, Annabelle Friedrich, Seda Akgün, María José Mendiburo, Sebastian Wesselborg, Marcus Conrad, Carsten Berndt, Björn Stork
ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that emerges to be relevant for therapy-resistant and dedifferentiating cancers. Although several lines of evidence suggest that ferroptosis is a type of autophagy-dependent cell death, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Fin56, a type 3 ferroptosis inducer, triggers ferroptosis by promoting glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) protein degradation via a not fully understood pathway. Here, we determined that Fin56 induces ferroptosis and autophagy in bladder cancer cells and that Fin56-triggered ferroptosis mechanistically depends on the autophagic machinery. Furthermore, we found that autophagy inhibition at different stages attenuates Fin56-induced oxidative stress and GPX4 degradation. Moreover, we investigated the effects of Fin56 in combination with Torin 2, a potent mTOR inhibitor used to activate autophagy, on cell viability. We found that Fin56 synergizes with Torin 2 in cytotoxicity against bladder cancer cells. Collectively, our findings not only support the concept that ferroptosis is a type of autophagy-dependent cell death but imply that the combined application of ferroptosis inducers and mTOR inhibitors is a promising approach to improve therapeutic options in the treatment of bladder cancer.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

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