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Hybrid Nanoparticles as a Novel Tool for Regulating Psychosine-Induced Neuroinflammation and Demyelination In Vitro and Ex vivo.

Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics (2021-09-05)
Adryana Clementino, Maria Velasco-Estevez, Francesca Buttini, Fabio Sonvico, Kumlesh K Dev
ABSTRACT

Polymeric nanoparticles are being extensively investigated as an approach for brain delivery of drugs, especially for their controlled release and targeting capacity. Nose-to-brain administration of nanoparticles, bypassing the blood brain barrier, offers a promising strategy to deliver drugs to the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the potential of hybrid nanoparticles as a therapeutic approach for demyelinating diseases, more specifically for Krabbe's disease. This rare leukodystrophy is characterized by the lack of enzyme galactosylceramidase, leading to the accumulation of toxic psychosine in glial cells causing neuroinflammation, extensive demyelination and death. We present evidence that lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles prevent damage associated with psychosine by sequestering the neurotoxic sphingolipid via physicochemical hydrophobic interactions. We showed how nanoparticles prevented the cytotoxicity caused by psychosine in cultured human astrocytes in vitro, and how the nanoparticle size and PDI augmented while the electrostatic charges of the surface decreased, suggesting a direct interaction between psychosine and the nanoparticles. Moreover, we studied the effects of nanoparticles ex vivo using mouse cerebellar organotypic cultures, observing that nanoparticles prevented the demyelination and axonal damage caused by psychosine, as well as a moderate prevention of the astrocytic death. Taken together, these results suggest that lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles are a potential novel delivery system for drugs for certain demyelinating conditions such as Krabbe's disease, due to their dual effect: not only are they an efficient platform for drug delivery, but they exert a protective effect themselves in tampering the levels of psychosine accumulation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Penicillin-Streptomycin, Solution stabilized, with 10,000 units penicillin and 10 mg streptomycin/mL, 0.1 μm filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose solution, 45% in H2O, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, for molecular biology