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  • Aromatic-Turmerone Analogs Protect Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Slice Cultures through Their Neuroprotective Activities.

Aromatic-Turmerone Analogs Protect Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Slice Cultures through Their Neuroprotective Activities.

Cells (2021-06-03)
Yuria Hori, Reiho Tsutsumi, Kento Nasu, Alex Boateng, Yasuhiko Ashikari, Masaharu Sugiura, Makoto Nakajima, Yuki Kurauchi, Akinori Hisatsune, Hiroshi Katsuki, Takahiro Seki
ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The inflammatory activation of microglia participates in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. Therefore, chemicals that inhibit microglial activation are considered to have therapeutic potential for PD. Aromatic (ar)-turmerone is a main component of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa and has anti-inflammatory activity in cultured microglia. The aims of the present study are (1) to investigate whether naturally occurring S-enantiomer of ar-turmerone (S-Tur) protects dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slice cultures and (2) to examine ar-turmerone analogs that have higher activities than S-Tur in inhibiting microglial activation and protecting dopaminergic neurons. R-enantiomer (R-Tur) and two analogs showed slightly higher anti-inflammatory effects in microglial BV2 cells. S- and R-Tur and these two analogs reversed dopaminergic neurodegeneration triggered by microglial activation in midbrain slice cultures. Unexpectedly, this neuroprotection was independent of the inhibition of microglial activation. Additionally, two analogs more potently inhibited dopaminergic neurodegeneration triggered by a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, than S-Tur. Taken together, we identified two ar-turmerone analogs that directly and potently protected dopaminergic neurons. An investigation using dopaminergic neuronal precursor cells suggested the possible involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in this neuroprotection.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥98% (HPLC and TLC), suitable for fluorescence
Sigma-Aldrich
Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4, purified by phenol extraction
Sigma-Aldrich
Monoclonal Anti-β-Actin antibody produced in mouse, clone AC-74, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Poly-L-ornithine hydrobromide, mol wt 30,000-70,000
Sigma-Aldrich
MPP+ iodide, ≥98% (HPLC), powder