Orthodontic treatment to correct dental malocclusions leads to the formation of pressure zones in the periodontal ligament resulting in a sterile inflammatory reaction, which is mediated by periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF). Leptin levels are elevated in obesity and chronic inflammatory responses. In view of the increasing number of orthodontic patients with these conditions, insights into effects on orthodontic treatment are of distinct clinical relevance. A possible influence of leptin on the expression profile of PDLF during simulated orthodontic mechanical strain, however, has not yet been investigated. In this study, PDLF were exposed to mechanical strain with or without different leptin concentrations. The gene and protein expression of proinflammatory and bone-remodelling factors were analysed with RT-qPCR, Western-blot and ELISA. The functional analysis of PDLF-induced osteoclastogenesis was analysed by TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) staining in coculture with human macrophages. Pressure-induced increase of proinflammatory factors was additionally elevated with leptin treatment. PDLF significantly increased RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kB ligand) expression after compression, while osteoprotegerin was downregulated. An additional leptin effect was demonstrated for RANKL as well as for subsequent osteoclastogenesis in coculture after TRAP staining. Our results suggest that increased leptin concentrations, as present in obese patients, may influence orthodontic tooth movement. In particular, the increased expression of proinflammatory factors and RANKL as well as increased osteoclastogenesis can be assumed to accelerate bone resorption and thus the velocity of orthodontic tooth movement in the orthodontic treatment of obese patients.