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  • Associations between CYP2E1 promoter polymorphisms and plasma 1,3-dimethyluric acid/theophylline ratios.

Associations between CYP2E1 promoter polymorphisms and plasma 1,3-dimethyluric acid/theophylline ratios.

European journal of clinical pharmacology (2006-07-15)
Yeomin Yoon, Hyung-Doo Park, Kyoung Un Park, Jin Q Kim, Yoon-Seok Chang, Junghan Song
RESUMO

Theophylline is metabolized to 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU), 3-methylxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine by CYP1A2 and partly by CYP2E1. Because 1,3-DMU is the major metabolite of theophylline, the 1,3-DMU/theophylline ratio is viewed as a good indicator of theophylline metabolic clearance. Here, we investigated the associations between 1,3-DMU/theophylline ratios and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were performed to analyze CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 promoter polymorphisms in 62 Korean asthma patients. Plasma theophylline and 1,3-DMU levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven polymorphisms including Ins(96), -1566 T>A, -1515 T>G, -1414 C>T, -1295 G>C, -1055 C>T, -1027 T>C, -930 A>G, -807 T>C, -352 A>G, and -333 T>A were detected in the 5' flanking region of the CYP2E1 gene (numbering according to GenBank Accession number NT_017795). Of these, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-1566 T>A, -1295 G>C, -1055 C>T, -1027 T>C, and -807 T>C) were closely linked. Another three polymorphisms (Ins(96,) -930 A>G, and -352 A>G) and two polymorphisms (-1515 T>G and -333 T>A) were also closely linked. The five closely linked polymorphisms were associated with significantly different 1,3-DMU/theophylline ratios between heterozygotes plus homozygotes of a rare allele (n=23, 0.0368+/-0.0171) and common allelic homozygotes (n=39, 0.0533+/-0.0343) (p=0.024 by Mann-Whitney U test). In the CYP1A2 gene, the -2964G>A polymorphisms exhibited a significant difference in 1,3-DMU/theophylline levels between heterozygotes plus homozygotes of a rare allele (n=30, 0.0406+/-0.0272) and homozygotes of a common allele (n=32, 0.0534+/-0.0316) (p=0.032). We confirm that hydroxylation at the 8 position of theophylline (1,3-DMU) is significantly affected by genetic polymorphism in CYP2E1 in addition to CYP1A2.