The more than 2,300-fold purification of a DNA polymerase from the embryos of Drosophila melanogaster is described. The enzyme, which forms a single band on gel electrophoresis, has a molecular weight of about 87,000 and a pH optimum of 8.5. A divalent metal is required for activity, Mg2+ being preferred with activated DNA, Mn2+ with homopolymer template-primers. The enzyme is inactivated completely by mercurials; polyamines are also inhibitory with certain templates. The most efficient template-primer is activated DNA, but homopolymers such as poly(dA)-oligo(dT), poly(A)-oligo(dT), and poly(A)-oligo(U) are also utilized with high efficiency. The purified enzyme preparations appear to be devoid of nuclease activity when assayed directly with suitable substrates. In addition, neither primer nor product is degraded after prolonged incubation with the enzyme. In accordance with previous observations on other DNA polymerases, the Drosophila enzyme can replicate single-stranded DNA only under conditions of simultaneous transcription by RNA polymerase.