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Kinetic limitations on tracer partitioning in ganglia dominated source zones.

Journal of contaminant hydrology (2011-11-26)
Rhiannon E Ervin, Ali Boroumand, Linda M Abriola, C Andrew Ramsburg
ABSTRACT

Quantification of the relationship between dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source strength, source longevity and spatial distribution is increasingly recognized as important for effective remedial design. Partitioning tracers are one tool that may permit interrogation of DNAPL architecture. Tracer data are commonly analyzed under the assumption of linear, equilibrium partitioning, although the appropriateness of these assumptions has not been fully explored. Here we focus on elucidating the nonlinear and nonequilibrium partitioning behavior of three selected alcohol tracers - 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 2-octanol in a series of batch and column experiments. Liquid-liquid equilibria for systems comprising water, TCE and the selected alcohol illustrate the nonlinear distribution of alcohol between the aqueous and organic phases. Complete quantification of these equilibria facilitates delineation of the limits of applicability of the linear partitioning assumption, and assessment of potential inaccuracies associated with measurement of partition coefficients at a single concentration. Column experiments were conducted under conditions of non-equilibrium to evaluate the kinetics of the reversible absorption of the selected tracers in a sandy medium containing a uniform entrapped saturation of TCE-DNAPL. Experimental tracer breakthrough data were used, in conjunction with mathematical models and batch measurements, to evaluate alternative hypotheses for observed deviations from linear equilibrium partitioning behavior. Analyses suggest that, although all tracers accumulate at the TCE-DNAPL/aqueous interface, surface accumulation does not influence transport at concentrations typically employed for tracer tests. Moreover, results reveal that the kinetics of the reversible absorption process are well described using existing mass transfer correlations originally developed to model aqueous boundary layer resistance for pure-component NAPL dissolution.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
1-Hexanol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Hexanol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
(±)-2-Octanol, ≥96.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Pentanol-1-13C, 99 atom % 13C, 99% (CP)
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Hexanol, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
(±)-2-Octanol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Amyl alcohol, ≥99%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Pentanol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.0% (GC)
Supelco
1-Pentanol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexyl alcohol, natural, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexyl alcohol, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Pentanol, ACS reagent, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Hexanol, reagent grade, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Pentanol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
(S)-(+)-2-Octanol, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Octanol, ≥97%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Octanol, 97%